The Barrow Neurological Institute is proud of its reputation as a medical research facility and is home to some of the most sophisticated research programs outside of an academic setting in the Southwestern United States. Researchers in the Barrow Neurosurgery Research Center are devoted to learning more about the causes of and treatments for a wide range of disorders, such as stroke, aneurysms, spinal cord injury, and hydrocephalus. Our research has led to treatments that are being used around the world. Within the Department are neurosurgeons who subspecialize in cerebrovascular and skull base, functional and stereotactic, pediatric, spine, tumor, and endovascular neurosurgery.

Physicians, scientists, and expert clinical staff come together with a commitment to developing new techniques for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of neurological illnesses and injuries. The leadership of internationally respected physicians keeps Barrow at the forefront of neuroscience. The compassionate expertise of its extensive staff of nurses, technologists, therapists and support personnel is evident in every aspect of care provided.

Our mission is to advance the knowledge and practice of medicine in neuroscience through basic and clinical research, education of medical professionals, and innovation in clinical techniques and technology.

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Submissions from 2022

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Efficacy and toxicity with radiation field designs and concurrent temozolomide for CNS lymphoma, Anna M. Laucis, Katherine Selwa, Yilun Sun, Michelle M. Kim, Kyle C. Cuneo, Theodore S. Lawrence, Daniel R. Wahl, Larry Junck, and Yoshie Umemura

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Decreased DNA Methylation of RGMA is Associated with Intracranial Hypertension After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: An Exploratory Epigenome-Wide Association Study, Dongjing Liu, Benjamin E. Zusman, John R. Shaffer, Yunqi Li, Annie I. Arockiaraj, Shuwei Liu, Daniel E. Weeks, Shashvat M. Desai, Patrick M. Kochanek, Ava M. Puccio, David O. Okonkwo, Yvette P. Conley, and Ruchira M. Jha

Outcomes in Patients With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Without Acute Intracranial Traumatic Injury., Debbie Y Madhok, Robert M Rodriguez, Jason Barber, Nancy R Temkin, Amy J Markowitz, Natalie Kreitzer, and Geoffrey T Manley

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Poststroke motor, cognitive and speech rehabilitation with brain-computer interface: a perspective review, Ravikiran Mane, Zhenzhou Wu, and David Wang

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Brain-Lung Crosstalk: Management of Concomitant Severe Acute Brain Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Nassim Matin, Kasra Sarhadi, C Patrick Crooks, Abhijit V. Lele, Vasisht Srinivasan, Nicholas J. Johnson, Chiara Robba, James A. Town, and Sarah Wahlster

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Neuropathologic validation of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire, Ida Mohebpour, Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Thomas Virden, Angela Breitmeyer, Marwan N. Sabbagh, Briana Auman, Christine M. Belden, Parichita Choudhury, Autumn Arch, Kathryn Davis, Carol Cline, Naudia Moorley, Alireza Atri, Geidy Serrano, and Thomas G. Beach

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Ophthalmology foundation Ophthalmic Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric (OSCAR) for pterygium surgery, Muhammad Moin, Karl C. Golnik, Sepehr Feizi, Agvaandorj Buyandelger, and Rosa E. Adrianzen

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Apathy as a Treatment Target in Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Clinical Trials, Moyra E. Mortby, Lawrence Adler, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Daniel R. Bateman, Henry Brodaty, Marc Cantillon, Yonas E. Geda, Zahinoor Ismail, Krista L. Lanctôt, Gad A. Marshall, Prasad R. Padala, Antonios Politis, Paul B. Rosenberg, Kostas Siarkos, David L. Sultzer, and Christos Theleritis

Between Scylla and Charybdis: risks of early therapeutic anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism after acute intracranial hemorrhage., Thuhien Nguyen, Monisha Sharma, Patrick Crooks, Pratik V Patel, Robert H Bonow, Claire J Creutzfeldt, and Sarah Wahlster

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Endovascular treatment with or without intravenous alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke due to basilar artery occlusion, Ximing Nie, David Wang, Yuehua Pu, Yufei Wei, Qixuan Lu, Hongyi Yan, Xin Liu, Lina Zheng, Jingyi Liu, Xinxuan Yang, Yarong Ding, Dacheng Liu, Wanying Duan, Zhe Zhang, Zhonghua Yang, Miao Wen, Weibin Gu, Xinyi Hou, Xinyi Leng, Yuesong Pan, Zhongrong Miao, and Liping Liu

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Natural Pattern of Cognitive Aging, Jan S. Novotný, Juan P. Gonzalez-Rivas, Maria Vassilaki, Janina Krell-Roesch, Yonas E. Geda, and Gorazd B. Stokin

Adaptive Platform Trials to Transform Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Therapy Development., Sabrina Paganoni, James D Berry, Melanie Quintana, Eric Macklin, Benjamin R Saville, Michelle A Detry, Marianne Chase, Alexander V Sherman, Hong Yu, Kristin Drake, Jinsy Andrews, Jeremy Shefner, Lori B Chibnik, Matteo Vestrucci, Merit E Cudkowicz, and Shafeeq S. Ladha

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Effect of sodium phenylbutyrate/taurursodiol on tracheostomy/ventilation-free survival and hospitalisation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: long-term results from the CENTAUR trial, Sabrina Paganoni, Suzanne Hendrix, Samuel P. Dickson, Newman Knowlton, James D. Berry, Michael A. Elliott, Samuel Maiser, Chafic Karam, James B. Caress, Margaret Ayo Owegi, Adam Quick, James Wymer, Stephen A. Goutman, Daragh Heitzman, Terry D. Heiman-Patterson, Carlayne Jackson, Colin Quinn, Jeffrey D. Rothstein, Edward J. Kasarskis, Jonathan Katz, Liberty Jenkins, Shafeeq S. Ladha, Timothy M. Miller, Stephen N. Scelsa, Tuan H. Vu, Christina Fournier, Kristin M. Johnson, Andrea Swenson, Namita Goyal, Gary L. Pattee, Suma Babu, and Marianne Chase

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Association of Data-Driven White Matter Hyperintensity Spatial Signatures With Distinct Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Etiologies, Chia-Ling Phuah, Yasheng Chen, Jeremy F. Strain, Nirupama Yechoor, Osvaldo J. Laurido-Soto, Beau M. Ances, and Jin-Moo Lee

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Environmental manganese exposure and cognitive control in a South African population, Brad A. Racette, Gill Nelson, Wendy W. Dlamini, Tamara Hershey, Pradeep Prathibha, Jay R. Turner, Harvey Checkoway, Lianne Sheppard, and Susan Searles Nielsen

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Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of the ACI-24 Vaccine in Adults With Down Syndrome: A Phase 1b Randomized Clinical Trial, Michael S. Rafii, Olivier Sol, William C. Mobley, Saskia Delpretti, Brian G. Skotko, Anna D. Burke, Marwan N. Sabbagh, Shauna H. Yuan, Robert A. Rissman, Margaret Pulsifer, Casey Evans, A Carol Evans, Gregory Beth, Nicolas Fournier, Julian A. Gray, Antonio Melo Dos Santos, Valerie Hliva, Marija Vukicevic, Marie Kosco-Vilbois, Johannes Streffer, Andrea Pfeifer, and Howard H. Feldman

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Pearls & Oy-sters: Pivoting Treatment Regimens of Pediatric Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors to Optimize Care in Adult ATRT: A Case Report, Rohan Rao, Abigail Koehler, Yehudit Rothman, Brandi Turner, Jamie Denlinger, Melissa Erickson, Matthew Hagen, Timothy S. Braverman, Abdelkader Mahammedi, Karl Golnik, Mario Zuccarello, Yair M. Gozal, E Randolph Broun, Susan N. Chi, and Soma Sengupta

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Optimal deep brain stimulation sites and networks for stimulation of the fornix in Alzheimer's disease, Ana Sofía Ríos, Simón Oxenford, Clemens Neudorfer, Konstantin Butenko, Ningfei Li, Nanditha Rajamani, Alexandre Boutet, Gavin J. Elias, Jurgen Germann, Aaron Loh, Wissam Deeb, Fuyixue Wang, Kawin Setsompop, Bryan Salvato, Leonardo Brito Almeida, Kelly D. Foote, Robert Amaral, Paul B. Rosenberg, David F. Tang-Wai, David A. Wolk, Anna D. Burke, Stephen Salloway, Marwan N. Sabbagh, M Mallar Chakravarty, Gwenn S. Smith, Constantine G. Lyketsos, Michael S. Okun, William S. Anderson, Zoltan Mari, Francisco A. Ponce, Andres M. Lozano, and Andreas Horn

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COR388 (atuzaginstat): an investigational gingipain inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, Marwan N. Sabbagh and Boris Decourt

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Primary prevention recommendations to reduce the risk of cognitive decline, Marwan N. Sabbagh, Adriana Perez, Thomas M. Holland, Malaz Boustani, Stephanie R. Peabody, Kristine Yaffe, Michelle Bruno, Russell Paulsen, Kelly O'Brien, Naila Wahid, and Rudolph E. Tanzi

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Complete Response of a Patient With a Mismatch Repair Deficient Aggressive Pituitary Adenoma to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: A Case Report, Sanjit Shah, Saima Manzoor, Yehudit Rothman, Matthew Hagen, Luke Pater, Karl Golnik, Abdelkader Mahammedi, Andrew L. Lin, Ruchi Bhabhra, Jonathan A. Forbes, and Soma Sengupta

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Predictors of Time to Aneurysm Repair and Mortality in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Tiffany O. Sheehan, Nicolle W. Davis, Yi Guo, Debra Lynch Kelly, Saunjoo L. Yoon, and Ann L. Horgas

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Transient Opening of the Blood-Brain Barrier by Vasoactive Peptides to Increase CNS Drug Delivery: Reality Versus Wishful Thinking?, Matthew A. Smith-Cohn, Nicholas B. Burley, and Stuart A. Grossman

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Liquid biopsy in gliomas: A RANO review and proposals for clinical applications, Riccardo Soffietti, Chetan Bettegowda, Ingo K. Mellinghoff, Katherine E. Warren, Manmeet S. Ahluwalia, John F. De Groot, Evanthia Galanis, Mark R. Gilbert, Kurt A. Jaeckle, Emilie Le Rhun, Roberta Rudà, Joan Seoane, Niklas Thon, Yoshie Umemura, Michael Weller, Martin J. van den Bent, Michael A. Vogelbaum, Susan M. Chang, and Patrick Y. Wen

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Vascular endothelial-cadherin as a marker of endothelial injury in preclinical Alzheimer disease, Rawan Tarawneh, Rachel S. Kasper, Jessie Sanford, Chia-Ling Phuah, Jason Hassenstab, and Carlos Cruchaga

Risk Factors for High Symptom Burden Three Months after Traumatic Brain Injury and Implications for Clinical Trial Design: A Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Study., Nancy Temkin, Joan Machamer, Sureyya Dikmen, Lindsay D Nelson, Jason Barber, Phillip H Hwang, Kim Boase, Murray B Stein, Xiaoying Sun, Joseph Giacino, Michael A McCrea, Sabrina R Taylor, Sonia Jain, and Geoff Manley

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Inpatient long-term video-electroencephalographic monitoring event capture audiovisual diagnostic quality, Samuel Waller Terman, Susanna S. O'Kula, Melissa Marie Asmar, Kathryn A. Davis, Deana M. Gazzola, Rodica Lesanu, Laura George, Linda M. Selwa, Simon M. Glynn, and Chloe E. Hill

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Increased creativity associated with dopamine agonist therapy: A case report and short review of the literature, Smathorn Thakolwiboon, Amputch Karukote, Parunyou Julayanont, and Henrik Wilms

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Discordance Between Perceptions and Experience of Lumbar Puncture: A Prospective Study, Yoshie Umemura, Baber Khan, Benjamin J. Weill, Justin J. Buthorn, Anna Skakodub, Andrew J. Ridder, Kathryn S. Nevel, Yilun Sun, and Adrienne Boire

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Association of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and cognitive impairment, Maria Vassilaki, Jeremiah A. Aakre, Anna Castillo, Alanna M. Chamberlain, Patrick M. Wilson, Walter K. Kremers, Michelle M. Mielke, Yonas E. Geda, Mary M. Machulda, Rabe E. Alhurani, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val J. Lowe, Clifford R. Jack, David S. Knopman, and Ronald C. Petersen

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Association of Performance on the Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form With Brain Amyloid Load and Cortical Thickness in Older Adults, Maria Vassilaki, Jeremiah A. Aakre, Walter K. Kremers, Michelle M. Mielke, Yonas E. Geda, Mary M. Machulda, David S. Knopman, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val J. Lowe, Clifford R. Jack, Erik D. Roberson, Adam Gerstenecker, Roy C. Martin, Richard E. Kennedy, Daniel C. Marson, and Ronald C. Petersen

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Precision antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of ischaemic stroke, David Wang

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Association Between Preonset Anti-hypertensive Treatment and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mortality: A Cohort Study From CHEERY, Yan Wan, Hongxiu Guo, Jing Shen, Shaoli Chen, Man Li, Yuanpeng Xia, Lei Zhang, Zhou Sun, Xiaolu Chen, Jiang Chang, David Wang, Quanwei He, and Bo Hu

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Feasibility and preliminary effects of exercise interventions on plasma biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease in the FIT-AD trial: a randomized pilot study in older adults with Alzheimer's dementia, Fang Yu, Seung Yong Han, Dereck Salisbury, Jeremy J. Pruzin, Yonas Geda, Richard J. Caselli, and Danni Li

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No rebound effect after a course of clopidogrel in patients with acute TIA or minor stroke, Xinmiao Zhang, Jing Jing, Xingquan Zhao, Liping Liu, Anxin Wang, Yuesong Pan, David Wang, S Claiborne Johnston, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang, and Xia Meng

Albumin-Corrected Fructosamine Predicts All-Cause and Non-CVD Mortality Among the Very Elderly Aged 80 Years or Older Without Diabetes., Jinhui Zhou, Yuebin Lv, Feng Zhao, Yuan Wei, Xiang Gao, Chen Chen, Feng Lu, Yingchun Liu, Chengcheng Li, Jiaonan Wang, Xiaochang Zhang, Heng Gu, Zhaoxue Yin, Zhaojin Cao, Virginia B Kraus, Chen Mao, and Xiaoming Shi

Submissions from 2021

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Developing methods to detect and diagnose chronic traumatic encephalopathy during life: rationale, design, and methodology for the DIAGNOSE CTE Research Project, Michael L. Alosco, Megan L. Mariani, Charles H. Adler, Laura J. Balcer, Charles Bernick, Rhoda Au, Sarah J. Banks, William B. Barr, Sylvain Bouix, Robert C. Cantu, Michael J. Coleman, David W. Dodick, Lindsay A. Farrer, Yonas E. Geda, Douglas I. Katz, Inga K. Koerte, Neil W. Kowall, Alexander P. Lin, Daniel S. Marcus, Kenneth L. Marek, Michael D. McClean, Ann C. McKee, Jesse Mez, Joseph N. Palmisano, Elaine R. Peskind, Yorghos Tripodis, Robert W. Turner, Jennifer V. Wethe, Jeffrey L. Cummings, Eric M. Reiman, Martha E. Shenton, and Robert A. Stern

Patient Assisted Intervention for Neuropathy: Comparison of Treatment in Real Life Situations (PAIN-CONTRoLS): Bayesian Adaptive Comparative Effectiveness Randomized Trial, Richard J. Barohn, Byron Gajewski, Mamatha Pasnoor, Alexandra Brown, Laura L. Herbelin, Kim S. Kimminau, Dinesh Pal Mudaranthakam, Omar Jawdat, Mazen M. Dimachkie, Stanley Iyadurai, Amro Stino, John Kissel, Robert Pascuzzi, Thomas Brannagan, Matthew Wicklund, Aiesha Ahmed, David Walk, Gordon Smith, Dianna Quan, Darryl Heitzman, Alejandro Tobon, Shafeeq Ladha, Gil Wolfe, Michael Pulley, Ghazala Hayat, Yuebing Li, Pariwat Thaisetthawatkul, Richard Lewis, Suur Biliciler, Khema Sharma, and Kian Salajegheh

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Potential Neuroregenerative and Neuroprotective Effects of Uridine/Choline-Enriched Multinutrient Dietary Intervention for Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Narrative Review, Barry S. Baumel, P. Murali Doraiswamy, Marwan Sabbagh, and Richard Wurtman

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Outcome after acute ischemic stroke is linked to sex-specific lesion patterns, Anna K. Bonkhoff, Markus D. Schirmer, Martin Bretzner, Sungmin Hong, Robert W. Regenhardt, Mikael Brudfors, Kathleen L. Donahue, Marco J. Nardin, Adrian V. Dalca, Anne-Katrin Giese, Mark R. Etherton, Brandon L. Hancock, Steven J. Mocking, Elissa C. McIntosh, John Attia, Oscar R. Benavente, Stephen Bevan, John W. Cole, Amanda Donatti, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Laura Heitsch, Lukas Holmegaard, Katarina Jood, Jordi Jimenez-Conde, Steven J. Kittner, Robin Lemmens, Christopher R. Levi, Caitrin W. McDonough, James F. Meschia, Chia-Ling Phuah, and Arndt Rolfs

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MRI Radiomic Signature of White Matter Hyperintensities Is Associated With Clinical Phenotypes, Martin Bretzner, Anna K. Bonkhoff, Markus D. Schirmer, Sungmin Hong, Adrian V. Dalca, Kathleen L. Donahue, Anne-Katrin Giese, Mark R. Etherton, Pamela M. Rist, Marco Nardin, Razvan Marinescu, Clinton Wang, Robert W. Regenhardt, Xavier Leclerc, Renaud Lopes, Oscar R. Benavente, John W. Cole, Amanda Donatti, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Laura Heitsch, Lukas Holmegaard, Katarina Jood, Jordi Jimenez-Conde, Steven J. Kittner, Robin Lemmens, Christopher R. Levi, Patrick F. McArdle, Caitrin W. McDonough, James F. Meschia, Chia-Ling Phuah, and Arndt Rolfs

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Safety and efficacy of pioglitazone for the delay of cognitive impairment in people at risk of Alzheimer's disease (TOMMORROW): a prognostic biomarker study and a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Daniel K. Burns, Robert C. Alexander, Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer, Meredith Culp, Carl Chiang, Janet O'Neil, Rebecca M. Evans, Patrick Harrigan, Brenda L. Plassman, James R. Burke, Jingtao Wu, Michael W. Lutz, Stephen Haneline, Adam J. Schwarz, Lon S. Schneider, Kristine Yaffe, Ann M. Saunders, Emiliangelo Ratti, Dag Aarsland, Oda Ackermann, Joscelyn Agron-Figueroa, Thomas Arnold, Peter Bailey, Clive Ballard, Scott Barton, Christine Belden, James Bergthold, Wendy Bond, Ronald Bradley, Walter Braude, Mark Brody, and Richard Brown

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IDH-mutant brainstem gliomas in adolescent and young adult patients: Report of three cases and review of the literature, Ellen K. Chang, Matthew A. Smith-Cohn, Benita Tamrazi, Jianling Ji, Mark Krieger, Matthias Holdhoff, Charles G. Eberhart, Ashley S. Margol, and Jennifer A. Cotter

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Staging tau pathology with tau PET in Alzheimer’s disease: a longitudinal study, Shi Dong Chen, Jia Ying Lu, Hong Qi Li, Yu Xiang Yang, Jie Hui Jiang, Mei Cui, Chuan Tao Zuo, Lan Tan, Qiang Dong, Jin Tai Yu, Michael W. Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Clifford R. Jack, William Jagust, John Q. Trojanowki, Arthur W. Toga, Laurel Beckett, Robert C. Green, Andrew J. Saykin, John C. Morris, Richard J. Perrin, Leslie M. Shaw, Maria Carrillo, William Potter, Lisa Barnes, Marie Bernard, Hector González, Carole Ho, John K. Hsiao, Jonathan Jackson, and Eliezer Masliah

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Correlation between Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes using non-negative matrix factorization, Yeonwoo Chung, Hyunju Lee, Michael W. Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Cliford R. Jack, William Jagust, John Q. Trojanowki, Arthur W. Toga, Laurel Beckett, Robert C. Green, Andrew J. Saykin, John Morris, Leslie M. Shaw, Zaven Khachaturian, Greg Sorensen, Maria Carrillo, Lew Kuller, Marc Raichle, Steven Paul, Peter Davies, Howard Fillit, Franz Hefti, Davie Holtzman, M. Marcel Mesulam, William Potter, Peter Snyder, Tom Montine, Ronald G. Thomas, Michael Donohue, Sarah Walter, and Tamie Sather

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Uncovering Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of High-Grade Gliomas: From Disease Biology to Therapeutic Implications, Andrea Comba, Syed M. Faisal, Maria Luisa Varela, Todd Hollon, Wajd N. Al-Holou, Yoshie Umemura, Felipe J. Nunez, Sebastien Motsch, Maria G. Castro, and Pedro R. Lowenstein

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Pharmacoresistant seizures and IDH mutation in low-grade gliomas, Carlos Eduardo Correia, Yoshie Umemura, Jessica R. Flynn, Anne S. Reiner, and Edward K. Avila

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Principal Component Analysis of Striatal and Extrastriatal D2 Dopamine Receptor Positron Emission Tomography in Manganese-Exposed Workers, Susan R. Criswell, Susan Searles Nielsen, Wendy W. Dlamini, Mark N. Warden, Joel S. Perlmutter, Lianne Sheppard, Stephen M. Moerlein, Jason Lenox-Krug, Harvey Checkoway, and Brad A. Racette

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Aducanumab produced a clinically meaningful benefit in association with amyloid lowering, Jeffrey Cummings, Paul Aisen, Cynthia Lemere, Alireza Atri, Marwan Sabbagh, and Stephen Salloway

Methohexital - Induced lateralized periodic discharges during Wada test., Omar A Danoun, Nicholas Beimer, Henry Buchtel, Simon Glynn, and David Harris

Outcomes of seizures, status epilepticus, and EEG findings in critically ill patient with COVID-19., Omar A Danoun, Andrew Zillgitt, Chloe Hill, Deepti Zutshi, David Harris, Gamaleldin Osman, Rohit Marawar, Subhendu Rath, Maryam J Syed, Muhammad Affan, Lonni Schultz, and Vibhangini S Wasade

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Tau-Atrophy Variability Reveals Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Alzheimer's Disease, Sandhitsu R. Das, Xueying Lyu, Michael Tran Duong, Long Xie, Lauren McCollum, Robin de Flores, Michael DiCalogero, David J. Irwin, Bradford C. Dickerson, Ilya M. Nasrallah, Paul A. Yushkevich, David A. Wolk, Michael Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Clifford R. Jack, William Jagust, John Q. Trojanowki, Arthur W. Toga, Laurel Beckett, Robert C. Green, Andrew J. Saykin, John Morris, Leslie M. Shaw, Enchi Liu, Tom Montine, Ronald G. Thomas, Michael Donohue, Sarah Walter, Devon Gessert, Tamie Sather, and Gus Jiminez

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Factors Associated With Emergency Department Length of Stay and In-hospital Mortality in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients, Nicolle W. Davis, Tiffany O. Sheehan, Yi Guo, Debra Lynch Kelly, Ann L. Horgas, and Saunjoo L. Yoon

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Critical Appraisal of Amyloid Lowering Agents in AD, Boris Decourt, Fadel Boumelhem, Evans D. Pope, Jiong Shi, Zoltan Mari, and Marwan Noel Sabbagh

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Blood Biomarkers for Detection of Brain Injury in COVID-19 Patients, Steven T. DeKosky, Patrick M. Kochanek, Alex B. Valadka, Robert S. Clark, Sherry H-Y Chou, Alicia K. Au, Christopher Horvat, Ruchira M. Jha, Rebekah Mannix, Stephen R. Wisniewski, Max Wintermark, Susan E. Rowell, Robert D. Welch, Lawrence Lewis, Stacey House, Rudolph E. Tanzi, Darci R. Smith, Amy Y. Vittor, Nancy D. Denslow, Michael D. Davis, Olena Y. Glushakova, and Ronald L. Hayes

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Collateral Circulation Augmentation and Neuroprotection as Adjuvant to Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke, Shashvat M. Desai, Ruchira M. Jha, and Italo Linfante

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Safety and efficacy of avalglucosidase alfa versus alglucosidase alfa in patients with late-onset Pompe disease (COMET): a phase 3, randomised, multicentre trial, Jordi Diaz-Manera, Priya S. Kishnani, Hani Kushlaf, Shafeeq Ladha, Tahseen Mozaffar, Volker Straub, Antonio Toscano, Ans T. van der Ploeg, Kenneth I. Berger, Paula R. Clemens, Yin-Hsiu Chien, John W. Day, Sergey Illarioshkin, Mark Roberts, Shahram Attarian, Joao Lindolfo Borges, Francoise Bouhour, Young Chul Choi, Sevim Erdem-Ozdamar, Ozlem Goker-Alpan, Anna Kostera-Pruszczyk, Kristina An Haack, Christopher Hug, Olivier Huynh-Ba, Judith Johnson, Nathan Thibault, Tianyue Zhou, Mazen M. Dimachkie, and Benedikt Schoser

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A Rapid Motor Task-Based Screening Tool for Parkinsonism in Community-Based Studies, Wendy W. Dlamini, Searles Nielsen, Mwiza Ushe, Gill Nelson, and Brad A. Racette

Establishing a learning healthcare system to improve health outcomes for people with epilepsy, Maria A. Donahue, Susan T. Herman, Deepika Dass, Kathleen Farrell, Alison Kukla, Nicholas S. Abend, Lidia M.V.R. Moura, Jeffrey R. Buchhalter, and Brandy E. Fureman

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Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: recommendations of the International Working Group, Bruno Dubois, Nicolas Villain, Giovanni B. Frisoni, Gil D. Rabinovici, Marwan Sabbagh, Stefano Cappa, Alexandre Bejanin, Stéphanie Bombois, Stéphane Epelbaum, Marc Teichmann, Marie Odile Habert, Agneta Nordberg, Kaj Blennow, Douglas Galasko, Yaakov Stern, Christopher C. Rowe, Stephen Salloway, Lon S. Schneider, Jeffrey L. Cummings, and Howard H. Feldman

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Online Faculty Development: An African Lusophone Ophthalmic Society Experience During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Helena P. Filipe, Karl C. Golnik, Amelia Geary, Amelia Buque, and Heather G. Mack

Galcanezumab for the prevention of migraine., Lindsay M Frerichs and Deborah I Friedman

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Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease: Evolving the Care Team for Optimal Patient Management, James E. Galvin, Paul Aisen, Jessica B. Langbaum, Eric Rodriguez, Marwan Sabbagh, Richard Stefanacci, Robert A. Stern, Elizabeth A. Vassey, Arno de Wilde, Neva West, and Ivana Rubino

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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in a Low-Income Country in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Call for Further Research, Yonas E. Geda, Janina Krell-Roesch, Yaphet Fisseha, Aida Tefera, Teferra Beyero, Deborah Rosenbaum, Thomas G. Szabo, Mesfin Araya, and Steven C. Hayes

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Brain structures and networks responsible for stimulation-induced memory flashbacks during forniceal deep brain stimulation for Alzheimer's disease, Jürgen Germann, Gavin J.B. Elias, Alexandre Boutet, Keshav Narang, Clemens Neudorfer, Andreas Horn, Aaron Loh, Wissam Deeb, Bryan Salvato, Leonardo Almeida, Kelly D. Foote, Paul B. Rosenberg, David F. Tang-Wai, David A. Wolk, Anna D. Burke, Stephen Salloway, Marwan N. Sabbagh, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Gwenn S. Smith, Constantine G. Lyketsos, Michael S. Okun, and Andres M. Lozano

Examining the Role of Microbiota in Emotional Behavior: Antibiotic Treatment Exacerbates Anxiety in High Anxiety-Prone Male Rats, M E. Glover, J L. Cohen, J R. Singer, M N. Sabbagh, J R. Rainville, M T. Hyland, C D. Morrow, C T. Weaver, G E. Hodes, Ilan A. Kerman, and S M. Clinton

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Assessment of Trends in Guideline-Based Oral Anticoagulant Prescription for Patients With Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation in China, Hong-Qiu Gu, Xin Yang, Chun-Juan Wang, Xing-Quan Zhao, Yi-Long Wang, Li-Ping Liu, Xia Meng, Yong Jiang, Hao Li, Chelsea Liu, Yun-Yun Xiong, Gregg C. Fonarow, David Wang, Ying Xian, Zi-Xiao Li, and Yong-Jun Wang

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Stress hyperglycemia may have higher risk of stroke recurrence than previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus, Yuzhou Guo, Guangyao Wang, Jing Jing, Anxin Wang, Xiaoli Zhang, Xia Meng, Xingquan Zhao, Liping Liu, Hao Li, David Wang, Yongjun Wang, and Yilong Wang

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Clinicopathological Correlation: Dopamine and Amyloid PET Imaging with Neuropathology in Three Subjects Clinically Diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies, Harsh V. Gupta, Thomas G. Beach, Shyamal H. Mehta, Holly A. Shill, Erika Driver-Dunckley, Marwan N. Sabbagh, Christine M. Belden, Carolyn Liebsack, Brittany N. Dugger, Geidy E. Serrano, Lucia I. Sue, Andrew Siderowf, Michael J. Pontecorvo, Mark A. Mintun, Abhinay D. Joshi, and Charles H. Adler

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Drug repurposing for COVID-19 based on an integrative meta-analysis of SARS-CoV-2 induced gene signature in human airway epithelium, Rajaneesh K. Gupta, Enyinna L. Nwachuku, Benjamin E. Zusman, Ruchira M. Jha, and Ava M. Puccio

Cross-Sectional Exploration of Plasma Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease in Down Syndrome: Early Data from the Longitudinal Investigation for Enhancing Down Syndrome Research (LIFE-DSR) Study, James A. Hendrix, David C. Airey, Angela Britton, Anna D. Burke, George T. Capone, Ronelyn Chavez, Jacqueline Chen, Brian Chicoine, Alberto C.S. Costa, Jeffrey L. Dage, Eric Doran, Anna Esbensen, Casey L. Evans, Kelley M. Faber, Tatiana M. Foroud, Sarah Hart, Kelsey Haugen, Elizabeth Head, Suzanne Hendrix, Hampus Hillerstrom, Priya S. Kishnani, Kavita Krell, Duvia Lara Ledesma, Florence Lai, Ira Lott, Cesar Ochoa-Lubinoff, Jennifer Mason, Jessie Nicodemus-Johnson, and Nicholas Kyle Proctor

American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology: 2021 Version, Lawrence J. Hirsch, Michael W.K. Fong, Markus Leitinger, Suzette M. LaRoche, Sandor Beniczky, Nicholas S. Abend, Jong Woo Lee, Courtney J. Wusthoff, Cecil D. Hahn, M. Brandon Westover, Elizabeth E. Gerard, Susan T. Herman, Hiba Arif Haider, Gamaleldin Osman, Andres Rodriguez-Ruiz, Carolina B. Maciel, Emily J. Gilmore, Andres Fernandez, Eric S. Rosenthal, Jan Claassen, Aatif M. Husain, Ji Yeoun Yoo, Elson L. So, Peter W. Kaplan, Marc R. Nuwer, Michel van Putten, Raoul Sutter, Frank W. Drislane, Eugen Trinka, and Nicolas Gaspard

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Excessive White Matter Hyperintensity Increases Susceptibility to Poor Functional Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke, Sungmin Hong, Anne-Katrin Giese, Markus D. Schirmer, Anna K. Bonkhoff, Martin Bretzner, Pamela Rist, Adrian V. Dalca, Robert W. Regenhardt, Mark R. Etherton, Kathleen L. Donahue, Marco Nardin, Steven J. Mocking, Elissa C. McIntosh, John Attia, Oscar R. Benavente, John W. Cole, Amanda Donatti, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Laura Heitsch, Lukas Holmegaard, Katarina Jood, Jordi Jimenez-Conde, Jaume Roquer, Steven J. Kittner, Robin Lemmens, Christopher R. Levi, Caitrin W. McDonough, James F. Meschia, Chia-Ling Phuah, Arndt Rolfs, and Stefan Ropele

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Higher CSF sTNFR1-related proteins associate with better prognosis in very early Alzheimer’s disease, William T. Hu, Tugba Ozturk, Alexander Kollhoff, Whitney Wharton, J. Christina Howell, Michael Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Clifford R. Jack, William Jagust, John Q. Trojanowki, Arthur W. Toga, Laurel Beckett, Robert C. Green, Andrew J. Saykin, John Morris, Richard J. Perrin, Leslie M. Shaw, Zaven Kachaturian, Maria Carrillo, William Potter, Lisa Barnes, Marie Bernard, Hector González, Carole Ho, John K. Hsiao, Eliezer Masliah, Donna Masterman, Ozioma Okonkwo, Laurie Ryan, Nina Silverberg, and Adam Fleisher

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Correction to: Pain Trajectories Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage are Associated with Continued Opioid Use at Outpatient Follow-Up, Matthew N. Jaffa, Ruchira M. Jha, Jonathan Elmer, Adam Kardon, Jamie E. Podell, Benjamin E. Zusman, Madeleine C. Smith, J Marc Simard, Gunjan Y. Parikh, Michael J. Armahizer, Neeraj Badjatia, and Nicholas A. Morris

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Pain Trajectories Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage are Associated with Continued Opioid Use at Outpatient Follow-up, Matthew N. Jaffa, Ruchira M. Jha, Jonathan Elmer, Adam Kardon, Jamie E. Podell, Benjamin E. Zusman, Madeleine C. Smith, J Marc Simard, Gunjan Y. Parikh, Michael J. Armahizer, Neeraj Badjatia, and Nicholas A. Morris

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Glibenclamide Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy, Ruchira M. Jha, Stefania Mondello, Helen M. Bramlett, C Edward Dixon, Deborah A. Shear, W Dalton Dietrich, Kevin K. Wang, Zhihui Yang, Ronald L. Hayes, Samuel M. Poloyac, Philip E. Empey, Audrey D. Lafrenaye, Hong Q. Yan, Shaun W. Carlson, John T. Povlishock, Janice S. Gilsdorf, and Patrick M. Kochanek

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Neurocritical Care Updates in Cerebrovascular Disease, Ruchira M. Jha and Kevin N. Sheth

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Genetic Variants Associated With Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage Progression After Traumatic Brain Injury, Ruchira M. Jha, Benjamin E. Zusman, Ava M. Puccio, David O. Okonkwo, Matthew Pease, Shashvat M. Desai, Matthew Leach, Yvette P. Conley, and Patrick M. Kochanek

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Psychosis, Parunyou Julayanont and Uma Suryadevara

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The Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric for External Dacryocystorhinostomy Surgery, Valerie Juniat, George M. Saleh, Milind Naik, Jeffrey Nerad, Vinod Gauba, Martin H. Devoto, Farzad Pakdel, and Karl C. Golnik

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National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome, Douglas I. Katz, Charles Bernick, David W. Dodick, Jesse Mez, Megan L. Mariani, Charles H. Adler, Michael L. Alosco, Laura J. Balcer, Sarah J. Banks, William B. Barr, David L. Brody, Robert C. Cantu, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Yonas E. Geda, Barry D. Jordan, Thomas W. McAllister, Elaine R. Peskind, Ronald C. Petersen, Jennifer V. Wethe, Ross D. Zafonte, Éimear M. Foley, Debra J. Babcock, Walter J. Koroshetz, Yorghos Tripodis, Ann C. McKee, Martha E. Shenton, Jeffrey L. Cummings, Eric M. Reiman, and Robert A. Stern

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The Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric for Intravitreal Injections (ICO-OSCAR:IVI), Sieh Yean Kiew, Ian Yew Yeo, Karl C. Golnik, María A. Muriel-Herrero, Vanesa Fuertes-Barahona, and Andrzej Grzybowski

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A Phase 2 Study of Dose-intensified Chemoradiation Using Biologically Based Target Volume Definition in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma, Michelle M. Kim, Yilun Sun, Madhava P. Aryal, Hemant A. Parmar, Morand Piert, Benjamin Rosen, Charles S. Mayo, James M. Balter, Matthew Schipper, Nicolette Gabel, Emily M. Briceño, Daekeun You, Jason Heth, Wajd Al-Holou, Yoshie Umemura, Denise Leung, Larry Junck, Daniel R. Wahl, Theodore S. Lawrence, and Yue Cao

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Fluid therapy after brain injury: the pendulum swings again, Patrick M. Kochanek and Ruchira M. Jha

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Physical Activity and Trajectory of Cognitive Change in Older Persons: Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, Janina Krell-Roesch, Jeremy A. Syrjanen, Jelena Bezold, Sandra Trautwein, Bettina Barisch-Fritz, Klaus Boes, Alexander Woll, Erica Forzani, Walter K. Kremers, Mary M. Machulda, Michelle M. Mielke, David S. Knopman, Ronald C. Petersen, Maria Vassilaki, and Yonas E. Geda

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Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the outcome of cognitive trajectories in older adults free of dementia: The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, Janina Krell-Roesch, Jeremy A. Syrjanen, Mary M. Machulda, Teresa J. Christianson, Walter K. Kremers, Michelle M. Mielke, David S. Knopman, Ronald C. Petersen, Maria Vassilaki, and Yonas E. Geda

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Association of Cortical and Subcortical β-Amyloid With Standardized Measures of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Adults Without Dementia, Janina Krell-Roesch, Jeremy A. Syrjanen, Martin Rakusa, Prashanthi Vemuri, Mary M. Machulda, Walter K. Kremers, Michelle M. Mielke, Val J. Lowe, Clifford R. Jack, David S. Knopman, Gorazd B. Stokin, Ronald C. Petersen, Maria Vassilaki, and Yonas E. Geda

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Cerebrovascular disease in women, Aditya Kumar and Louise McCullough

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Practical recommendations for timely, accurate diagnosis of symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (MCI and dementia) in primary care: a review and synthesis, J. L. Liss, S. Seleri Assunção, J. Cummings, A. Atri, D. S. Geldmacher, S. F. Candela, D. P. Devanand, H. M. Fillit, J. Susman, J. Mintzer, T. Bittner, S. A. Brunton, D. R. Kerwin, W. C. Jackson, G. W. Small, G. T. Grossberg, C. K. Clevenger, V. Cotter, R. Stefanacci, A. Wise-Brown, and M. N. Sabbagh

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China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke II (CATIS-2): rationale and design, Liping Liu, Yilong Wang, Xuewei Xie, Dacheng Liu, Aili Wang, Penglian Wang, Suwen Shen, Chongke Zhong, Yufei Wei, Tan Xu, Yuesong Pan, Yong Jiang, Xia Meng, David Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Jiang He, and Yongjun Wang

Radiologic Analysis of Balloon Sinuplasty in a Human Cadaver Model: Observed Effects on Sinonasal Anatomy, Erin M. Lopez, Zainab Farzal, Meghan Norris, Michael W. Canfarotta, Andrew K. Pappa, Griffin D. Santarelli, Stephen C. Hernandez, Brian D. Thorp, Brent A. Senior, Adam M. Zanation, Charles S. Ebert, Julia S. Kimbell, and Adam J. Kimple

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The Utility of the Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status in Patients with Temporal and Non-temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Moshe Maiman, Victor A. Del Bene, Eileen Farrell, William S. MacAllister, Sloane Sheldon, Miguel Arce Rentería, Mitchell Slugh, Deana M. Gazzola, and William B. Barr

A Comparison of Sphenoid Sinus Osteoneogenesis in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease, Madison J. Malfitano, Griffin D. Santarelli, Mark Gelpi, William C. Brown, Wesley H. Stepp, Stephen Hernandez, Adam J. Kimple, Brian D. Thorp, Adam M. Zanation, and Charles S. Ebert

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Is Levodopa Response a Valid Indicator of Parkinson's Disease?, W R. Martin, Michael Miles, Qiaonan Zhong, Johanna Hartlein, Brad A. Racette, Scott A. Norris, Mwiza Ushe, Baijayanta Maiti, Susan Criswell, Albert A. Davis, Paul T. Kotzbauer, Nigel J. Cairns, Richard J. Perrin, and Joel S. Perlmutter

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Late-onset rapidly progressive MRI- negative-myelitis after COVID-19 illness, Anza B. Memon, Rami Al-Hader, Suresh Patel, Shaneela Malik, Mary Megally, Kara L. Steijlen, Ritika R. Suri, and John Corrigan

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KL-VS heterozygosity is associated with lower amyloid-dependent tau accumulation and memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease, Julia Neitzel, Nicolai Franzmeier, Anna Rubinski, Martin Dichgans, Matthias Brendel, Michael Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Clifford R. Jack, William Jagust, John Q. Trojanowki, Arthur W. Toga, Laurel Beckett, Robert C. Green, Andrew J. Saykin, John Morris, Leslie M. Shaw, Enchi Liu, Tom Montine, Ronald G. Thomas, Michael Donohue, Sarah Walter, Devon Gessert, Tamie Sather, Gus Jiminez, Danielle Harvey, Matthew Bernstein, Nick Fox, Paul Thompson, Norbert Schuff, Charles DeCArli, and Bret Borowski

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Mapping autonomic, mood and cognitive effects of hypothalamic region deep brain stimulation, Clemens Neudorfer, Gavin J.B. Elias, Martin Jakobs, Alexandre Boutet, Jürgen Germann, Keshav Narang, Aaron Loh, Michelle Paff, Andreas Horn, Walter Kucharczyk, Wissam Deeb, Bryan Salvato, Leonardo Almeida, Kelly D. Foote, Paul B. Rosenberg, David F. Tang-Wai, William S. Anderson, Zoltan Mari, Francisco A. Ponce, David A. Wolk, Anna D. Burke, Stephen Salloway, Marwan N. Sabbagh, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Gwenn S. Smith, Constantine G. Lyketsos, Michael S. Okun, and Andres M. Lozano

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Solvent exposed occupations and risk of Parkinson disease in Finland, Susan Searles Nielsen, Mark N. Warden, Markku Sallmén, Markku Sainio, Sanni Uuksulainen, Harvey Checkoway, Christer Hublin, and Brad A. Racette

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Investigating cognition in midlife, Jan S. Novotný, Juan P. Gonzalez-Rivas, Jose R. Medina-Inojosa, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Yonas E. Geda, and Gorazd B. Stokin