Prospective Evaluation of Surgical Microscope-Integrated Intraoperative Near-Infrared Indocyanine Green Angiography During Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Surgery
OBJECTIVE: Microscope-integrated indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography is a novel technique in vascular neurosurgery with potential utility in treating arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). METHODS: We analyzed the application of intraoperative ICG in 10 consecutive AVM surgeries for which surgical video was available. The ability to distinguish AVM vessels (draining veins, feeding and nidal arteries) from each other and from normal vessel was evaluated, and ICG angiographic findings were correlated with intra- and postoperative findings on digital subtraction angiography (DSA). RESULTS: ICG angiography was found to be useful by the surgeon in 9 of 10 patients. In 8 patients, it helped to distinguish AVM vessels. In 3 of 4 patients undergoing a postresection injection, it demonstrated that there was no residual arteriovenous shunting. In 1 patient, it helped to identify a small AVM nidus that was otherwise inapparent within a hematoma. Intraoperative DSA showed residual AVM in 2 of 10 patients requiring further resection of AVM not visualized during surgery. CONCLUSION: Microscope-integrated ICG angiography is a useful tool in AVM surgery. It can be used to distinguish AVM vessels from normal vessels and arteries from veins based on the timing of fluorescence with the dye. Our experience suggests that it is less useful with deep-seated lesions or when AVM vessels are not on the surface. ICG angiography complements rather than replaces DSA. Copyright Â© by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Killory, Brendan D.; Nakaji, Peter; Gonzales, L. Fernando; Ponce, Francisco A.; Wait, Scott D.; and Spetzler, Robert F., "Prospective Evaluation of Surgical Microscope-Integrated Intraoperative Near-Infrared Indocyanine Green Angiography During Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Surgery" (2009). Neurosurgery. 341.