Titanium aneurysm clips: Part II--Seizure and electroencephalographic studies in implanted rabbits
Because titanium is widely used in neurosurgical procedures, we compared spontaneous and induced epileptiform activity in 12 rabbits with titanium clips implanted in the subarachnoid space with 12 rabbits with cobalt alloy clips and 6 rabbits that were not operated on that served as controls. Beginning 1 week after surgery, 30-minute electroencephalographic recordings were made at monthly intervals for 6 months. Recordings were scored by an electroencephalographer unaware of which treatment group was being recorded. In 48 recordings made during 6 months, no epileptiform activity was observed in any animal. Seizure threshold was evaluated by continuous intravenous injection of the convulsant drug, pentylenetetrazole (2 mg/kg/min), with continuous electroencephalographic recording. Time to spiking for the nonsurgical control group was 327 mean seconds +/- 181 standard deviation (SD), 216 mean seconds +/- 135 SD for the titanium group, and 389 mean seconds +/- 290 SD for the cobalt group. There were no significant differences among the groups (P = 0.17). Latency to behavioral tonicoclonic seizure was 1031 seconds +/- 537 SD for the group not operated on, 875 seconds +/- 334 SD for the titanium group, and 1267 seconds +/- 764 SD for the cobalt group. This study suggests that titanium clips are well tolerated within the brain and will not induce seizures.
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Cerebral Cortex (physiopathology); Electroencephalography; Equipment Design; Evoked Potentials (physiology); Female; Intracranial Aneurysm (physiopathology, surgery); Male; Materials Testing; Prostheses and Implants; Rabbits; Seizures (physiopathology); Titanium
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Fisher, R S.; Ehsan, T; Smith, K; Lawton, M T.; Bichard, W D.; and Spetzler, R F., "Titanium aneurysm clips: Part II--Seizure and electroencephalographic studies in implanted rabbits" (1996). Neurosurgery. 1456.