Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously untreated brain arteriovenous malformation
AIM: To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte infiltration in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is not associated with iron deposition (indicator of microhemorrhage). METHODS: Sections of unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens (n=19) were stained immunohistochemically for T-lymphocytes (CD3), B-lymphocytes (CD20), plasma cells (CD138) and macrophages (CD68). Iron deposition was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue stains. Superficial temporal arteries (STA) were used as control. RESULTS: Both T lymphocytes and macrophages were present in unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens, whereas few B cells and plasma cells were detected. Iron deposition was detected in 8 specimens (42%; 95% confidence interval =20-67%). The samples with iron deposition tended to have more macrophages than those without (666±313 vs 478±174 cells/mm; P=0.11). T-cells were clustered on the luminal side of the endothelial surface, on the vessel-wall, and in the perivascular regions. There was no correlation between T lymphocyte load and iron deposition (P=0.88). No macrophages and lymphocytes were detected in STA controls. CONCLUSIONS: T-lymphocytes were present in bAVM specimens. Unlike macrophages, the load and location of T-lymphocytes were not associated with iron deposition, suggesting the possibility of an independent cell-mediated immunological mechanism in bAVM pathogenesis.
Neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Guo, Yi; Tihan, Tarik; Kim, Helen; Hess, Christopher; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Zhao, Yuanli; and Su, Hua, "Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously untreated brain arteriovenous malformation" (2015). Neurosurgery. 1103.