Assessment of a combined spin- and gradient-echo (SAGE) DSC-MRI method for preclinical neuroimaging
The goal of this study was to optimize and validate a combined spin- and gradient-echo (SAGE) sequence for dynamic susceptibility-contrast magnetic resonance imaging to obtain hemodynamic parameters in a preclinical setting. The SAGE EPI sequence was applied in phantoms and in vivo rat brain (normal, tumor, and stroke tissue). Partial and full Fourier encoding schemes were implemented and characterized. Maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), vessel size index (VSI), volume transfer constant (Ktrans), and volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space (ve) were obtained. Partial Fourier encoding provided shortened echo times with acceptable signal-to-noise ratio and temporal stability, thus enabling reliable characterization of T2, T2* and T1 in both phantoms and rat brain. The hemodynamic parameters CBV, CBF, and MTT for gradient-echo and spin-echo contrast were determined in tumor and stroke; VSI, Ktrans, and ve were also computed in tumor tissue. The SAGE EPI sequence allows the acquisition of multiple gradient- and spin-echoes, from which measures of perfusion, permeability, and vessel size can be obtained in a preclinical setting. Partial Fourier encoding can be used to minimize SAGE echo times and reliably quantify dynamic T2 and T2* changes. This acquisition provides a more comprehensive assessment of hemodynamic status in brain tissue with vascular and perfusion abnormalities.
Dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging, Gadolinium contrast agent, Iron oxide contrast agent, Perfusion, Permeability, Spin-echo and gradient-echo EPI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Stokes, Ashley M.; Skinner, Jack T.; and Quarles, C. Chad, "Assessment of a combined spin- and gradient-echo (SAGE) DSC-MRI method for preclinical neuroimaging" (2014). Translational Neuroscience. 1178.