Hyperosmolar and methotrexate therapy avoiding surgery in the acute presentation of primary central nervous system lymphoma
Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive type of extra-nodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Without treatment, PCNSL is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including rapid neurological deterioration. In contrast to other high-grade intracranial neoplasms, PCNSL is considered to have a high response rate to conventional medical therapy, especially in younger patients, and therefore warrants particular attention in terms of nonsurgical treatment. Case Description: We report a case of the medical management of acute deterioration due to rapidly growing PCNSL with mass effect to highlight the efficacy of temporization with hyperosmolar therapy while awaiting the known rapid effects of dexamethasone and methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Surgical intervention was avoided, and tumor response was rapid. The patient had corresponding clinical resolution of symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure with return to neurologic baseline. Conclusions: Despite the evidence that PCNSL responds well to steroids and MTX, the rapidity of onset with which this occurs can vary. In patients presenting with mass effect and rapid neurologic decline, there is little evidence to support medical over surgical intervention. Herein we present an illustrative case of a large PCNSL lesion presenting with rapid decline. With clinical improvement in one day and a 50% reduction in tumor volume over less than seven days, the authors present the specific time frame with which PCNSL responds to medical therapy and a safe strategy for medical temporization. Copyright: © 2014 Lamis FC.
Surgical Neurology International
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Lee, Bryan S.; Juthani, Rupa G.; Healy, Andrew T.; Peereboom, David M.; and Recinos, Violette M., "Hyperosmolar and methotrexate therapy avoiding surgery in the acute presentation of primary central nervous system lymphoma" (2014). Neurosurgery Articles. 826.