Pathologic Correlation of Cellular Imaging Using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Quantification in Patients with Brain Metastases After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery
© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Objective: To evaluate the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating radiation necrosis (RN) from recurrent tumor after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for brain metastases (BMs). Methods: Forty-one patients with BM who underwent surgical intervention after GKRS at Cleveland Clinic (2006–2017) were included in this retrospective study. The ADC values of the growing lesions and the contralateral hemisphere were calculated using picture archiving and communication system. These values were correlated to the percentage of RN identified on pathologic evaluation of the surgical specimen. Results: The median age of the patients was 59 years (range, 25–86 years), and lung cancer (63.4%) was the most common malignancy. Median initial (pre-GKRS) target volume of the lesions was 5.4 cc (range, 0.135–45.6 cc), and median GKRS dose was 18.0 Gy. Surgical resection or biopsy was performed at a median of 176 days after GKRS. Two variables were statistically significant predictors of predominate RN (75%–100%) in the surgical specimen: 1) ADC of the lesion on the preresection magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2) initial pre-GKRS target volume. ADC >1.5 × 10−3 mm2/s within the lesion on MRI predicted significant RN on pathologic evaluation of the lesion (P < 0.05). Similarly, when the target volume before GKRS was large (>10 cc), the risk of identifying significant necrosis in the pathologic specimen was elevated (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our data suggest that the combination of lesion ADC on MRI prior to surgical intervention and the initial target volume can predict RN with reasonable accuracy.
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Borghei-Razavi, Hamid; Sharma, Mayur; Emch, Todd; Krivosheya, Daria; Lee, Bryan; Muhsen, Baha'eddin; Prayson, Richard; Obuchowski, Nancy; Barnett, Gene H.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Chao, Samuel T.; Suh, John H.; Mohammadi, Alireza M.; and Angelov, Lilyana, "Pathologic Correlation of Cellular Imaging Using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Quantification in Patients with Brain Metastases After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery" (2020). Neurosurgery Articles. 801.