A Thoracic Surgeon Among Neurosurgeons: Edward Archibald's Forgotten Influence on the Professionalization of Neurosurgery.
Edward Archibald, Professor of Surgery at McGill University (1904-1945), Montreal, Canada, was the foremost thoracic surgeon of his generation. Although instrumental in establishing the American Board of Surgery and in standardizing surgical training, he was also influential as a neurosurgeon. Archibald, an early member invited by Harvey Cushing to join the Society of Neurological Surgeons, helped establish neurosurgery as a distinct, specialized discipline. We review Archibald's contributions to the development of neurosurgery in light of his encyclopedic 1908 monograph, "Surgical Affections and Wounds of the Head," which we compare and contrast to the contemporary treatise by Cushing in the same year. Through his writings and correspondence with Wilder Penfield and Cushing, we also describe his role in the creation of the Montreal Neurological Institute. Primary archival sources addressing the professional relationship between Archibald and Cushing and between Archibald and Penfield were consulted. Archibald's personal acquaintance with the principal neurosurgeons of the day, his insight into their personalities, their prominence in the field, and their career paths played a critical role in influencing Penfield to consider relocating to Montreal from Columbia University, despite tempting offers from Boston and Philadelphia. However, it was Archibald's support and mentorship for the creation of an academic center that finally convinced Penfield to move to McGill University. As one of the most influential surgeons of the early 20th century and a founding figure of modern neurosurgery, Archibald is an important part of neurosurgery's legacy.
Medical Subject Headings
Canada; History, 19th Century; History, 20th Century; Humans; Neurosurgery; Surgeons
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Zehri, Aqib H; Belykh, Evgenii; Zhao, Xiaochun; Leblanc, Richard; and Preul, Mark C, "A Thoracic Surgeon Among Neurosurgeons: Edward Archibald's Forgotten Influence on the Professionalization of Neurosurgery." (2020). Neurosurgery. 613.