Cerebral Revascularization for Moyamoya Syndrome Associated with Sickle Cell Disease: A Systematic Review of the Literature on the Role of Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass in Treating Neurologic Manifestations of Pediatric Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.



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Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) accentuates the risk of recurrent strokes. Chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) is an excellent option for preventing recurrent strokes in most patients with SCD. In SCD with MMS, CTT may fail as a long-term solution. Cerebral revascularization, in the form of extracranial-intracranial bypass, has been shown to prevent recurrent strokes in this cohort. We review the evolution of this paradigm shift in the management of SCD-associated MMS. A systematic review, adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol, was conducted. Our primary objectives were 1) to study the evolution of cerebral revascularization techniques in management of MMS in SCD and 2) to analyze the impact of neurosurgical intervention in this high-risk population. Four patients with SCD-associated MMS, who underwent indirect cerebral revascularization at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. A summary of 13 articles chronicling the advent and subsequent evolution of cerebral revascularization as a viable treatment strategy for stroke prevention in SCD-associated MMS is presented. The literature review suggests that early detection and surgical intervention (in addition to CTT) could significantly reduce stroke recurrence and improve neurocognitive outcome. Our short series of 4 patients also had a good outcome and no recurrence of strokes postoperatively. The literature emphasizes the use of a traditional standardized protocol for early identification (transcranial Dopplers, selective magnetic resonance angiography, and CTT). Early treatment and screening that involves early magnetic resonance angiography and referral to neurosurgery for revascularization may be considered for this high-risk population.

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World Neurosurg





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