Intraoperative Stereoscopic Quicktime Virtual Reality
Object. The aim of this study was to acquire intraoperative images during neurosurgical procedures for later reconstruction into a stereoscopic image system (QuickTime Virtual Reality [QTVR]) that would improve visualization of complex neurosurgical procedures. Methods. A robotic microscope and digital cameras were used to acquire left and right image pairs during cranial surgery; a grid system facilitated image acquisition with the microscope. The surgeon determined a field of interest and a target or pivot point for image acquisition. Images were processed with commercially available software and hardware. Two-dimensional (2D) or interlaced left and right 2D images were reconstructed into a standard or stereoscopic QTVR format. Standard QTVR images were produced if stereoscopy was not needed. Intraoperative image sequences of regions of interest were captured in six patients. Relatively wide and deep dissections afford an opportunity for excellent QTVR production. Narrow or restricted surgical corridors can be reconstructed into the stereoscopic QTVR mode by using a keyhole mode of image acquisition. The stereoscopic effect is unimpressive with shallow or cortical surface dissections, which can be reconstructed into standard QTVR images. Conclusions. The QTVR system depicts multiple views of the same anatomy from different angles. By tilting, panning, or rotating the reconstructed images, the user can view a virtual three-dimensional tour of a neurosurgical dissection, with images acquired intraoperatively. The stereoscopic QTVR format provides depth to the montage. The system recreates the dissection environment almost completely and provides a superior anatomical frame of reference compared with the images captured by still or video photography in the operating room.
Journal of Neurosurgery
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Balogh, Attila; Preul, Mark C.; Schornak, Mark; Hickman, Michael; and Spetzler, Robert F., "Intraoperative Stereoscopic Quicktime Virtual Reality" (2004). Neurosurgery. 231.