Indications for Surgical Treatment of Arteriovenous Malformations
The complexity of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain varies widely. In general, Spetzler-Martin grades I through III AVMs or those with certain high-risk features should be treated; grades IV through V AVMs often are best managed conservatively. The exact treatment strategy for any individual lesion should be formulated by a multidisciplinary team that includes experts in microsurgery, endovascular surgery, and radiosurgery. Multimodal treatment is common. Microsurgical removal remains the definitive form of treatment.
Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Nakaji, Peter and Spetzler, Robert F., "Indications for Surgical Treatment of Arteriovenous Malformations" (2005). Neurosurgery. 212.