Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes After Stand-Alone Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Symptomatic L5-S1 Retrolisthesis

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis is associated with significant pain and disability. The literature on the treatment options and clinical outcomes for lumbar anterolisthesis is robust, but very few reports specifically evaluate lumbar retrolisthesis. This study investigated surgical outcomes for symptomatic L5-S1 retrolisthesis treated with stand-alone L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). METHODS: All patients with symptomatic L5-S1 retrolisthesis treated with stand-alone L5-S1 ALIF at a single institution over a 7-year period were identified. Exhaustive nonoperative management had failed for all patients. Patients with previous lumbar fusion were excluded. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic images and patient-reported outcome measures for 20 patients (14 males and 6 females; mean [SD] age, 50.3 [13.7] years) were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean (SD) follow-up was 43.0 (23.7) months (range, 12.1-102.5 months). Patients experienced postoperative improvements in L5-S1 retrolisthesis (P = .048), L5-S1 disk height and angle (P < .001), L5 foraminal height (P < .001), L5-S1 lordosis (P < .001), and lumbar lordosis (P = .01). There were no significant changes in spinopelvic parameters. At the most recent follow-up, minimal clinically important differences in Oswestry Disability Index score, 36-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-36), and numerical rating scale score for leg pain were achieved in 11 of 20 (55%), 7 of 14 (50%), and 7 of 13 (54%) patients, respectively. All patients demonstrated fusion with no graft subsidence at up to 32 months. No patient experienced intraoperative complications, was readmitted, or required a subsequent posterior decompression or fusion because of refractory symptoms. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, stand-alone L5-S1 ALIF was associated with radiographic and clinical improvement in patients with symptomatic L5-S1 retrolisthesis.

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Operative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)



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