Objective Outcomes in Lateral Osteotomy Through Anterior-to-Psoas for Severe Adult Degenerative Spine Deformity Correction

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Multilevel lateral interbody fusion is an acceptable surgical technique in patients with severe degenerative adult spinal deformity (ASD). The current standard-of-care in spine surgery includes the use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) to assess post-operative improvement. Objective activity data during the peri-operative period may provide supplementary information for patients recovering from ASD surgery. In this report, we use smartphone-based activity data as an objective outcome measure for a patient who underwent a two-stage operation for ASD corrective surgery: lateral osteotomy and lumbar interbody fusion with posterior column release. An 82-year-old male presented with intractable back pain secondary to severe thoracolumbar scoliotic deformity (Lenke 5BN). Pre-operative images demonstrated the presence of bridging osteophytes over the left lateral aspect of L2-5 disc spaces and over the apex of the lumbar curvature, with significant neuroforaminal stenosis. Surgical correction was completed in two stages: (1) left-sided lateral osteotomy using anterior-to-psoas approach (ATP) in a right lateral decubitus position, and (2) multilevel Ponte osteotomies and instrumented fusion from T10-pelvis. Post-operative radiography showed correction to scoliotic deformity and sagittal misalignment. The patient had developed seroma and wound dehiscence, which was evacuated on post-operative day 11. At 14-month follow-up, the patient reported significant improvement in pain symptoms, corroborated by patient reported outcome measures. To further quantify and assess patient recovery, smartphone-based patient activity data was collected and analyzed to serve as a proxy for the patient's functional improvement. The patient's walking steps-per-day was compared pre- and post-operatively. The patient's pre-operative baseline was 223 steps/day; the patient's activity during immediate post-operative recovery dropped to 179 steps/day; the patient returned to baseline activity levels approximately 3 months after surgery, reaching an average of 216 steps/day. In conclusion, we found that lateral osteotomy through an ATP approach is a powerful tool to restore normal spine alignment and can be successfully performed using anatomic landmarks. Additionally, smartphone-based mobility data can assess pre-operative activity level and allow for remote patient monitoring beyond routine follow-up schedule.

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