ZAP-X Gyroscopic Radiosurgery System: A Preliminary Analysis of Clinical Applications within a Retrospective Case Series
INTRODUCTION: The ZAP-X Gyroscopic Radiosurgery system (ZAP Surgical Systems, Inc., San Carlos, CA, USA) is a novel high-dose targeted stereotactic radiosurgery platform for outpatient use that includes self-shielding, X-ray image guidance, and the capacity to aim the radiation beam gyroscopically at an intracranial lesion using 5 independent degrees of freedom. The ZAP-X Gyroscopic Radiosurgery system accomplishes these actions while meeting widely accepted standards for dose gradient and accuracy. This retrospective study examined data of patients treated with gyroscopic radiosurgery (GRS) to document clinical outcomes. METHODS: Medical records of all outpatients treated with GRS over a 20-month period from January 2019 to August 2020 were searched to extract relevant details, including follow-up data until August 2021 (32-month study interval). Patients with <6 months of radiographical follow-up data were excluded unless death occurred. Data collection included pretreatment clinical history, pathological diagnosis, radiographical features, treatment parameters, and long-term clinical and radiographical follow-up. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients received outpatient treatment with GRS during the 20-month treatment interval, with 59 patients remaining after exclusion for the minimum follow-up threshold, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) fractionation of 1.85 (1.63). Eighty-two lesions were treated across a very heterogeneous patient population, including meningiomas (42.4%), metastases (39.0%), gliomas (6.8%), schwannomas (1.7%), and pituitary tumor (1.7%). Mean (SD) radiographical follow-up data (14.7 [6.60] months) were available for 56 patients. During that interval, 13 treated lesions in 13 patients (15.9%) demonstrated progression, 9 of which were stable during the initial posttreatment imaging surveillance period. Mean lesion volume was stable from pretreatment (2.54 cm3 [4.37 cm3]) to most recent follow-up (2.80 cm3 [8.20 cm3]) (t  = -0.310; p = 0.76). Minor adverse clinical events were noted in 3 (5.1%) of the 59 patients during the posttreatment phase that may have been related to the treatment. Ten (16.9%) patients died within the 32-month study interval. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This preliminary assessment of the first series of patients treated with the Zap-X Gyroscopic Radiosurgery system documents its overall feasibility in clinical applications. Although the duration of follow-up was brief, GRS appeared to be both safe and effective. Additional analysis, with an ongoing prospective registry, is underway.
Medical Subject Headings
Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Meningeal Neoplasms (surgery); Meningioma (surgery); Radiosurgery (methods); Retrospective Studies; Treatment Outcome
Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Hendricks, Benjamin K.; DiDomenico, Joseph D.; Barani, Igor J.; and Barranco, F David, "ZAP-X Gyroscopic Radiosurgery System: A Preliminary Analysis of Clinical Applications within a Retrospective Case Series" (2022). Neurosurgery. 1765.