The Application of the Novel Grading Scale (Lawton-Young Grading System) to Predict the Outcome of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation
BACKGROUND A supplementary grading scale (Supplemented Spetzler-Martin grade, Supp-SM) was introduced in 2010 as a refinement of the SM system to improve preoperative risk prediction of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). OBJECTIVE To determine the ability to predict surgical outcomes using the Supp-SM grading scale. METHODS This retrospective study was conducted on 200 patients admitted to the Helsinki University Hospital between 2000 and 2014. The validity of the Supp-SM and SM grading systems was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves, with respect to the change between preoperative and early (3-4 mo) as well as final postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. RESULTS The performance of the Supp-SM was superior to that of the SM grading scale in the early follow-up (3-4 mo): AUROC = 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.65) for SM and AUROC = 0.67 (95% CI: 0.60-0.75) for Supp-SM. The Supp-SM performance continued improving over SM at the late follow-up: AUROC = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.55-0.71) for SM and AUROC = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.62-0.77) for Supp-SM. The perforating artery supply, which is not part of either grading system, plays an important role in the early follow-up outcome (P =.008; odds ratio: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.32-6.55) and in the late follow-up outcome (P <.001; odds ratio: 5.89; 95% CI: 2.49-13.91). CONCLUSION The Supp-SM grading system improves the outcome prediction accuracy and is a feasible alternative to the SMS, even for series with higher proportion of high-grade AVMs. However, perforators play important role on the outcome.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Hafez, Ahmad; Koroknay-Pál, Päivi; Oulasvirta, Elias; Elseoud, Ahmed Abou; Lawton, Michael T.; Niemelä, Mika; and Laakso, Aki, "The Application of the Novel Grading Scale (Lawton-Young Grading System) to Predict the Outcome of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation" (2019). Neurosurgery. 1287.