Purpose: This article reviews the most common conditions that are caused by changes in head or body positions. Practical clinical methods to help distinguish vestibular from nonvestibular and central from peripheral vestibular positional dizziness are discussed. This article also reviews the treatment methods of selected canal variants of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).Recent Findings: Two recent evidence-based guidelines have established canalith repositioning maneuvers (Epley and Semont maneuvers) as safe and highly effective in the treatment of posterior canal BPPV. Recent studies suggest the Gufoni and the Lempert roll (barbecue) maneuvers are effective in treating lateral canal forms of BPPV.Summary: Most cases of positional vertigo are of peripheral vestibular origin and can be effectively treated by simple positioning maneuvers. This article reviews the variants of BPPV encountered in clinical practice, including mechanistic cause, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Generous use of figures is intended to aid in understanding the most effective treatment maneuver techniques for the more common forms of BPPV. Clinicians who can recognize the types of nystagmus associated with the various canal types of BPPV can usually recognize CNS causes as distinct.
Medical Subject Headings
CONTINUUM Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Fife, Terry D., "Positional Dizziness" (2012). Neurology. 79.