Title

Accuracy of ICD-10-CM claims-based definitions for epilepsy and seizure type

Document Type

Article

Abstract

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of ICD-10-CM claims-based definitions for epilepsy and classifying seizure types in the outpatient setting. Methods: We reviewed electronic health records (EHR) for a cohort of adults aged 18+ years seen by six neurologists who had an outpatient visit at a level 4 epilepsy center between 01/2019−09/2019. The neurologists used a standardized documentation template to capture the diagnosis of epilepsy (yes/no/unsure), seizure type (focal/generalized/unknown), and seizure frequency in the EHR. Using linked ICD-10-CM codes assigned by the provider, we assessed the accuracy of claims-based definitions for epilepsy, focal seizure type, and generalized seizure type against the reference-standard EHR documentation by estimating sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results: There were 673 eligible outpatient encounters. After review of EHRs for standardized documentation, an analytic sample consisted of 520 encounters representing 402 unique patients. In the EHR documentation, 93.5 % (n = 486/520) of encounters were with patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy. Of those, 66.0 % (n = 321/486) had ≥1 focal seizure, 41.6 % (n = 202/486) had ≥1 generalized seizure, and 7% (n = 34/486) had ≥1 unknown seizure. An ICD-10-CM definition for epilepsy (i.e., ICD-10 G40.X) achieved Sn = 84.4 % (95 % CI 80.8−87.5%), Sp = 79.4 % (95 % CI 62.1−91.3%), PPV = 98.3 % (95 % CI 96.6−99.3%), and NPV = 26.2 % (95 % CI 18.0−35.8%). The classification of focal vs generalized/unknown seizures achieved Sn = 69.8 % (95 % CI 64.4−74.8%), Sp = 79.4 % (95 % CI 72.4−85.3%), PPV = 86.8 % (95 % CI 82.1−90.7%), and NPV = 57.5 % (95 % CI 50.8−64.0%). Conclusions: Claims-based definitions using groups of ICD-10-CM codes assigned by neurologists in routine outpatient clinic visits at a level 4 epilepsy center performed well in discriminating between patients with and without a diagnosis of epilepsy and between seizure types.

Publication Date

10-1-2020

Publication Title

Epilepsy Research

ISSN

09201211

E-ISSN

18726844

Volume

166

PubMed ID

32683225

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106414

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