Depression, apolipoprotein E genotype, and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment: A prospective cohort study
Background: It remains unknown whether depression and apolipoprotein E genotype are risk factors for incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective: To determine whether elderly individuals with depression (measured by the short Geriatric Depression Scale) are at increased risk of developing incident MCI. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Primary care clinic. Participants: A cohort of 840 cognitively normal elderly subjects without depression at recruitment who were followed up prospectively for a median of 3.5 years (range, 0.4-12.8 years). Subjects who developed depression (score of ≥6 on the short Geriatric Depression Scale; depression cohort) were compared with all remaining subjects (referent cohort). Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of MCI (primary outcome) and incidence of MCI or dementia (composite secondary outcome). Results: Individuals in the depression cohort were at significantly increased risk of subsequent incident MCI (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-4.1) after adjusting for age (time scale), sex, and education, and considering dementia as a competing outcome. The association was stronger in men but did not vary by severity of depression. We observed a synergistic interaction between apolipoprotein E genotype (ε3/ε4 or ε4/ε4) and depression (joint effect HR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.9-13.6; test for additive interaction, P = .03). We found a similar association between depression and the subsequent composite outcome of incident MCI or dementia (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.3). Conclusions: Cognitively normal elderly individuals who develop depression are at increased risk of subsequent MCI. We found a synergistic interaction between depression and apolipoprotein E genotype. ©2006 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Archives of Neurology
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Geda, Yonas E.; Knopman, David S.; Mrazek, David A.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Smith, Glenn E.; Negash, Selamawit; Boeve, Bradley F.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Pankratz, V. Shane; and Rocca, Walter A., "Depression, apolipoprotein E genotype, and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment: A prospective cohort study" (2006). Neurology Articles. 456.