Sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness are associated with obesity independent of diet and physical activity

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© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. In the European Union, Czech Republic ranks 3rd and 6th for the incidence of obesity and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Worldwide, short sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) characterize obese subjects, which in turn exhibit scarce physical activity and unhealthy diet. We aimed to understand the relationship between irregular sleep patterns, obesity and lifestyle factors, such as diet and physical activity, in a vulnerable Czech population. 1482 members of the Kardiovize cohort, a random sample of the Czech urban population, were included in a cross-sectional study. Exposure variables included self-reported sleep duration and EDS, assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Primary outcomes were BMI and waist-to-hip ratio or prevalence of obesity and central obesity. Covariates included physical activity and diet. Associations and interactions between variables were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. After adjustment for covariates, short sleep duration (<7 h) was associated with greater odds of overweight (BMI > 25; OR = 1.42; 95%CI = 1.06–1.90; p = 0.020) and obesity (BMI > 30; OR = 1.40; 95%CI = 1.02–1.94; p = 0.047), while EDS was associated with greater odds of central obesity (OR = 1.72; 95%CI = 1.06–2.79; p = 0.030), independent of diet and physical activity. However, due to the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective, large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the etiological link and causality between sleep disturbances and obesity.

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