Outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage receiving sulfonylureas: a propensity-adjusted analysis
OBJECTIVE: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability, disrupted tight junctions, and increased cerebral edema. Sulfonylureas are associated with reduced tight-junction disturbance and edema and improved functional outcome in aSAH animal models, but human data are scant. We analyzed neurological outcomes in aSAH patients prescribed sulfonylureas for diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Patients treated for aSAH at a single institution (August 1, 2007-July 31, 2019) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with diabetes were grouped by presence or absence of sulfonylurea therapy on hospital admission. The primary outcome was favorable neurological status at last follow-up (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2). Variables with an unadjusted p-value of <0.20 were included in a propensity-adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of favorable outcomes. RESULTS: Of 1013 aSAH patients analyzed, 129 (13%) had diabetes at admission and 16 of these (12%) were taking sulfonylureas. Fewer diabetic than nondiabetic patients had favorable outcomes (40% [52/129] vs. 51% [453/884], p=0.03). Among diabetic patients, sulfonylurea use (OR 3.90, 95% CI 1.05-15.9, p=0.046), Charlson Comorbidity Index <4 (OR 3.66, 95% CI 1.24-12.1, p=0.02), and absence of delayed cerebral infarction (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.20-15.5, p=0.03) were associated with favorable outcomes in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was strongly associated with unfavorable neurological outcomes. An unfavorable outcome in this cohort was mitigated by sulfonylureas, supporting some preclinical evidence of a possible neuroprotective roles for these medications in aSAH. These results warrant further study on dose, timing, and duration of administration in humans.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Catapano, Joshua S.; Koester, Stefan W.; Bond, Kamila M.; Srinivasan, Visish M.; Farhadi, Dara S.; Rumalla, Kavelin; Cole, Tyler S.; Baranoski, Jacob F.; Winkler, Ethan A.; Graffeo, Christopher S.; Muñoz-Casabella, Amanda; Jadhav, Ashutosh P.; Ducruet, Andrew F.; Albuquerque, Felipe C.; Lawton, Michael T.; and Jha, Ruchira M., "Outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage receiving sulfonylureas: a propensity-adjusted analysis" (2023). Neurology. 1488.