Title

Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging in South African manganese mine workers

Authors

Susan R. Criswell, Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave., Box 8111, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address: criswells@neuro.wustl.edu.
Gill Nelson, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 27 St Andrews Rd, Parktown 2193, South Africa.
Luis F. Gonzalez-Cuyar, Department of Pathology, University of Washington, UW Medicine Pathology, Box 357470, Seattle, WA 98195-7470, USA.
John Huang, Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Ave., Suite 1101, Box 8502, St. Louis, MO 63108, USA.
Joshua S. Shimony, Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave., Box 8131, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
Harvey Checkoway, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, UC San Diego School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive-0628, La Jolla, CA 92093-0628, USA.
Christopher D. Simpson, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, School of Public Health Box 357234, Seattle, WA 98195-7234, USA.
Russell Dills, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, School of Public Health Box 357234, Seattle, WA 98195-7234, USA.
Noah S. Seixas, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, School of Public Health Box 357234, Seattle, WA 98195-7234, USA.
Brad A. Racette, Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave., Box 8111, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 27 St Andrews Rd, Parktown 2193, South Africa.

Document Type

Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with increased T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal in the basal ganglia. T1 signal intensity has been correlated with occupational Mn exposure but not with clinical symptomatology or neuropathology. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated predictors of ex vivo T1 MRI basal ganglia signal intensity in neuropathologic tissue obtained from deceased South African mine workers. METHODS: A 3.0 T MRI was performed on ex vivo brain tissue obtained from 19 Mn mine workers and 10 race- and sex-matched mine workers of other commodities. Basal ganglia regions of interest were identified for each subject with T1-weighted intensity indices generated for each region. In a pathology subset, regional T1 indices were compared to neuronal and glial cell density and tissue metal concentrations. RESULTS: Intensity indices were higher in Mn mine workers than non-Mn mine workers for the globus pallidus, caudate, anterior putamen, and posterior putamen with the highest values in subjects with the longest cumulative Mn exposure. Intensity indices were inversely correlated with the neuronal cell density in the caudate (p=0.040) and putamen (p=0.050). Tissue Mn concentrations were similar in Mn and non-Mn mine workers. Tissue iron (Fe) concentration trended lower across all regions in Mn mine workers. CONCLUSIONS: Mn mine workers demonstrated elevated basal ganglia T1 indices when compared to non-Mn mine workers. Predictors of ex vivo T1 MRI signal intensity in Mn mine workers include duration of Mn exposure and neuronal density.

Medical Subject Headings

Aged; Antigens, CD (metabolism); Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic (metabolism); Basal Ganglia (metabolism, pathology); Case-Control Studies; Female; Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (metabolism); Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Manganese Poisoning (epidemiology, pathology); Microtubule-Associated Proteins (metabolism); Middle Aged; Miners; South Africa (epidemiology)

Publication Date

7-1-2015

Publication Title

Neurotoxicology

E-ISSN

1872-9711

Volume

49

First Page

8

Last Page

14

PubMed ID

25912463

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1016/j.neuro.2015.04.002

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