Depression and anxiety in a manganese-exposed community
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the association between residential environmental manganese (Mn) exposure and depression and anxiety, given prior associations among occupationally-exposed workers. METHODS: We administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to 697 study participants in their preferred languages. These participants represented a population-based sample of residents aged ≥40 from two predominantly Black African communities in Gauteng province, South Africa: 605 in Meyerton, adjacent to a large Mn smelter, and 92 in Ethembalethu, a comparable non-exposed community. We investigated the associations between community (Meyerton vs. Ethembalethu) and severity of depression and anxiety, using linear regression, adjusting for age and sex. To document community-level differences in Mn exposure, we measured airborne PM-Mn. RESULTS: Meyerton residents had BDI scores 5.63 points (95 % CI 3.07, 8.20) higher than Ethembalethu residents, with all questions contributing to this significant difference. STAI-state scores were marginally higher in Meyerton than Ethembalethu residents [2.12 (95 % CI -0.17, 4.41)], whereas STAI-trait scores were more similar between the communities [1.26 (95 % CI -0.82, 3.35)]. Mean PM-Mn concentration was 203 ng/m at a long-term fixed site in Meyerton and 10 ng/m in Ethembalethu. CONCLUSION: Residence near Mn emission sources may be associated with greater depression symptomatology, and possibly current, but not lifetime, anxiety.
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anxiety (chemically induced, epidemiology, psychology); Depression (chemically induced, epidemiology, psychology); Environmental Exposure (adverse effects); Female; Humans; Independent Living (trends); Male; Manganese (adverse effects); Middle Aged; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; South Africa (epidemiology)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Racette, Brad A.; Nelson, Gill; Dlamini, Wendy W.; Hershey, Tamara; Prathibha, Pradeep; Turner, Jay R.; Checkoway, Harvey; Sheppard, Lianne; and Searles Nielsen, Susan, "Depression and anxiety in a manganese-exposed community" (2021). Neurology. 1115.