Title

Depression and anxiety in a manganese-exposed community

Authors

Brad A. Racette, Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8111, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA; School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193, South Africa. Electronic address: racetteb@wustl.edu.
Gill Nelson, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193, South Africa. Electronic address: gill.nelson@wits.ac.za.
Wendy W. Dlamini, Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8111, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA. Electronic address: wendy.dlamini@wustl.edu.
Tamara Hershey, Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8225, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA. Electronic address: tammy@wustl.edu.
Pradeep Prathibha, Department of Energy, Environmental, and Chemical Engineering, Washington University, Campus Box 1180, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO, 63130, USA. Electronic address: pradeep.prathibha@wustl.edu.
Jay R. Turner, Department of Energy, Environmental, and Chemical Engineering, Washington University, Campus Box 1180, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO, 63130, USA. Electronic address: jrturner@wustl.edu.
Harvey Checkoway, Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, #0725, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA. Electronic address: hcheckoway@ucsd.edu.
Lianne Sheppard, Departments of Biostatistics and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Box 357232, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA. Electronic address: sheppard@uw.edu.
Susan Searles Nielsen, Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8111, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA. Electronic address: snielsen@wustl.edu.

Document Type

Article

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the association between residential environmental manganese (Mn) exposure and depression and anxiety, given prior associations among occupationally-exposed workers. METHODS: We administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to 697 study participants in their preferred languages. These participants represented a population-based sample of residents aged ≥40 from two predominantly Black African communities in Gauteng province, South Africa: 605 in Meyerton, adjacent to a large Mn smelter, and 92 in Ethembalethu, a comparable non-exposed community. We investigated the associations between community (Meyerton vs. Ethembalethu) and severity of depression and anxiety, using linear regression, adjusting for age and sex. To document community-level differences in Mn exposure, we measured airborne PM-Mn. RESULTS: Meyerton residents had BDI scores 5.63 points (95 % CI 3.07, 8.20) higher than Ethembalethu residents, with all questions contributing to this significant difference. STAI-state scores were marginally higher in Meyerton than Ethembalethu residents [2.12 (95 % CI -0.17, 4.41)], whereas STAI-trait scores were more similar between the communities [1.26 (95 % CI -0.82, 3.35)]. Mean PM-Mn concentration was 203 ng/m at a long-term fixed site in Meyerton and 10 ng/m in Ethembalethu. CONCLUSION: Residence near Mn emission sources may be associated with greater depression symptomatology, and possibly current, but not lifetime, anxiety.

Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anxiety (chemically induced, epidemiology, psychology); Depression (chemically induced, epidemiology, psychology); Environmental Exposure (adverse effects); Female; Humans; Independent Living (trends); Male; Manganese (adverse effects); Middle Aged; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; South Africa (epidemiology)

Publication Date

7-1-2021

Publication Title

Neurotoxicology

E-ISSN

1872-9711

Volume

85

First Page

222

Last Page

233

PubMed ID

34087333

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1016/j.neuro.2021.05.017

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