Comparative anatomy of the porcine and human thoracic spines with reference to thoracoscopic surgical techniques
Background: This study compared porcine and human thoracic spine anatomies for a better understanding of how structures encountered during thoracoscopy differ between training with a porcine model and actual surgery in humans. Methods: Parameters were measured including vertebral body height, width, and depth; disc height; rib spacing; spinal canal depth and width; and pedicle height and width. Results: Although most porcine vertebral structures were smaller, porcine pedicle height was significantly greater than that of humans because the porcine pedicle houses a unique transverse foramen. The longus colli and psoas attach, respectively, to T5 and T13 in swine and to T3 and T12 in humans. In swine, the azygos vein generally was absent. The intercostal veins drained into the hemiazygos vein. Conclusions: Several thoracoscopically relevant anatomic differences between human and porcine spinal anatomies were identified. A thoracoscopic approach in a porcine model probably is best performed from the right side. The best general working area is between T6 and T10. © Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.
Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Bozkus, H.; Crawford, N. R.; Chamberlain, R. H.; Valenzuela, T. D.; Espinoza, A.; Yüksel, Z.; and Dickman, C. A., "Comparative anatomy of the porcine and human thoracic spines with reference to thoracoscopic surgical techniques" (2005). Neurobiology. 825.