Essential role for TMEM100 in vascular integrity but limited contributions to the pathogenesis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia
Aims: TMEM100 was previously identified as a downstream target of activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1; ACVRL1) signalling. Mutations on ALK1 cause hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a vascular disorder characterized by mucocutaneous telangiectases and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The aims of this study are to investigate the in vivo role of TMEM100 at various developmental and adult stages and to determine the extent to which TMEM100 contributed to the development of AVMs as a key downstream effector of ALK1. Methods and results: Blood vasculature in Tmem100-null embryos and inducible Tmem100-null neonatal and adult mice was examined.We found that TMEM100 deficiency resulted in cardiovascular defects at embryonic stage; dilated vessels, hyperbranching, and increasednumberof filopodia in the retinal vasculature atneonatal stage; and various vascular abnormalities, including internal haemorrhage, arteriovenous shunts, and weakening of vasculature with abnormal elastin layers at adult stage. However, arteriovenous shunts in adult mutant mice appeared to be underdeveloped without typical tortuosity of vessels associated with AVMs. We uncovered that the expression of genes encoding cell adhesion and extracellular matrix proteins was significantly affected in lungs of adult mutant mice. Especially Mfap4, which is associated with elastin fibre formation, was mostly down-regulated. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that TMEM100 has essential functions for the maintenance of vascular integrity as well as the formation of blood vessels. Our results also indicate that down-regulation of Tmem100 is not the central mechanism of HHTpathogenesis, but itmay contribute to the development of vascular pathology ofHHTbyweakening vascular integrity.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Moon, Eun Hye; Kim, Yoo Sung; Seo, Jiyoung; Lee, Sabin; Lee, Young Jae; and Oh, Suk Paul, "Essential role for TMEM100 in vascular integrity but limited contributions to the pathogenesis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia" (2015). Neurobiology. 668.