Treatment Timing, EEG, Neuroimaging, and Outcomes After Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy in Children
BACKGROUND: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare condition associated with rapid progression to coma and high incidence of morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and immunomodulatory therapy timing were retrospectively analyzed in children with ANE. ANE severity scores (ANE-SS) and MRI scores were also assessed. The associations of patient characteristics with 6-month modified Rankin scale (mRS) and length of hospitalization were determined using either univariate linear regression or one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: 7 children were retrospectively evaluated. Normal EEG sleep spindles ( = .024) and early treatment ( = .57, = .030) were associated with improved outcomes (ie, decreased mRS). Higher ANE-SS ( = .79, = .011), higher age ( = .62, = .038), and presence of brainstem lesions ( = .015) were associated with longer length of hospitalization. Other patient characteristics were not significantly associated with mRS or length of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Early immunomodulatory therapy and normal sleep spindles are associated with better functional outcome in children with ANE.
EEG, MRI, genetics, neuroimmunology, seizures
Medical Subject Headings
Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Electroencephalography; Female; Humans; Immunomodulation; Infant; Length of Stay; Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic (diagnosis, therapy); Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Neuroimaging; Outcome Assessment, Health Care; Retrospective Studies; Thalamus (pathology); Time-to-Treatment
Journal of child neurology
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Appavu, Brian; Foldes, Stephen; Fox, Jordana; Shetty, Sheetal; Oh, Ann; Bassal, Freddy; Marku, Iris; Mangum, Tara; Boerwinkle, Varina; Neilson, Derek; and Kruer, Michael, "Treatment Timing, EEG, Neuroimaging, and Outcomes After Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy in Children" (2021). Translational Neuroscience. 2218.