Association of Outcomes with Model-Based Indices of Cerebral Autoregulation After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

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BACKGROUND: We investigated whether model-based indices of cerebral autoregulation (CA) are associated with outcomes after pediatric traumatic brain injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective clinical database of 56 pediatric patients with traumatic brain injury undergoing intracranial pressure monitoring. CA indices were calculated, including pressure reactivity index (PRx), wavelet pressure reactivity index (wPRx), pulse amplitude index (PAx), and correlation coefficient between intracranial pressure pulse amplitude and cerebral perfusion pressure (RAC). Each CA index was used to compute optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Time of CPP below lower limit of autoregulation (LLA) or above upper limit of autoregulation (ULA) were computed for each index. Demographic, physiologic, and neuroimaging data were collected. Primary outcome was determined using Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE-Peds) at 12 months, with higher scores being suggestive of unfavorable outcome. Univariate and multiple linear regression with guided stepwise variable selection was used to find combinations of risk factors that can best explain the variability of GOSE-Peds scores, and the best fit model was applied to the age strata. We hypothesized that higher GOSE-Peds scores were associated with higher CA values and more time below LLA or above ULA for each index. RESULTS: At the univariate level, CPP, dose of intracranial hypertension, PRx, PAx, wPRx, RAC, percent time more than ULA derived for PAx, and percent time less than LLA derived for PRx, PAx, wPRx, and RAC were all associated with GOSE-Peds scores. The best subset model selection on all pediatric patients identified that when accounting for CPP, increased dose of intracranial hypertension and percent time less than LLA derived for wPRx were independently associated with higher GOSE-Peds scores. Age stratification of the best fit model identified that in children less than 2 years of age or 8 years of age or more, percent time less than LLA derived for wPRx represented the sole independent predictor of higher GOSE-Peds scores when accounting for CPP and dose of intracranial hypertension. For children 2 years or younger to less than 8 years of age, dose of intracranial hypertension was identified as the sole independent predictor of higher GOSE-Peds scores when accounting for CPP and percent time less than LLA derived for wPRx. CONCLUSIONS: Increased dose of intracranial hypertension, PRx, wPRx, PAx, and RAC values and increased percentage time less than LLA based on PRx, wPRx, PAx, and RAC are associated with higher GOSE-Peds scores, suggestive of unfavorable outcome. Reducing intracranial hypertension and maintaining CPP more than LLA based on wPRx may improve outcomes and warrants prospective investigation.


Cerebral autoregulation, Multimodal neurologic monitoring, Pediatric neurocritical care, Traumatic brain injury

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Brain Injuries, Traumatic; Cerebrovascular Circulation (physiology); Child; Child, Preschool; Homeostasis (physiology); Humans; Intracranial Pressure (physiology); Prospective Studies; Retrospective Studies

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Neurocritical care







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