Endothelin-1 induced middle cerebral artery occlusion model for ischemic stroke with laser Doppler flowmetry guidance in rat.
Stroke is the number one cause of disability and third leading cause of death in the world, costing an estimated $70 billion in the United States in 2009. Several models of cerebral ischemia have been developed to mimic the human condition of stroke. It has been suggested that up to 80% of all strokes result from ischemic damage in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) area. In the early 1990s, endothelin-1 (ET-1) was used to induce ischemia by applying it directly adjacent to the surface of the MCA after craniotomy. Later, this model was modified by using a stereotaxic injection of ET-1 adjacent to the MCA to produce focal cerebral ischemia. The main advantages of this model include the ability to perform the procedure quickly, the ability to control artery constriction by altering the dose of ET-1 delivered, no need to manipulate the extracranial vessels supplying blood to the brain as well as gradual reperfusion rates that more closely mimics the reperfusion in humans. On the other hand, the ET-1 model has disadvantages that include the need for a craniotomy, as well as higher variability in stroke volume. This variability can be reduced with the use of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to verify cerebral ischemia during ET-1 infusion. Factors that affect stroke variability include precision of infusion and the batch of the ET-1 used. Another important consideration is that although reperfusion is a common occurrence in human stroke, the duration of occlusion for ET-1 induced MCAO may not closely mimic that of human stroke where many patients have partial reperfusion over a period of hours to days following occlusion. This protocol will describe in detail the ET-1 induced MCAO model for ischemic stroke in rats. It will also draw attention to special considerations and potential drawbacks throughout the procedure.
Animals, Disease Models, Animal, Endothelin-1, Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery, Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, Male, Middle Cerebral Artery, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Stroke
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Disease Models, Animal; Endothelin-1; Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery; Laser-Doppler Flowmetry; Male; Middle Cerebral Artery; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Stroke
J Vis Exp
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Ansari, Saeed; Azari, Hassan; Caldwell, Kenneth J; Regenhardt, Robert W; Hedna, Vishnumurthy S; Waters, Micheal F; Hoh, Brian L; and Mecca, Adam P, "Endothelin-1 induced middle cerebral artery occlusion model for ischemic stroke with laser Doppler flowmetry guidance in rat." (2013). Translational Neuroscience. 1509.