Title

NF-kappaB signaling: a tale of two pathways in skeletal myogenesis

Document Type

Article

Abstract

NF-kappaB is a ubiquitiously expressed transcription factor that plays vital roles in innate immunity and other processes involving cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Activation of NF-kappaB is controlled by an IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex that can direct either canonical (classical) NF-kappaB signaling by degrading the IkappaB inhibitor and releasing p65/p50 dimers to the nucleus, or causes p100 processing and nuclear translocation of RelB/p52 via a noncanonical (alternative) pathway. Under physiological conditions, NF-kappaB activity is transiently regulated, whereas constitutive activation of this transcription factor typically in the classical pathway is associated with a multitude of disease conditions, including those related to skeletal muscle. How NF-kappaB functions in muscle diseases is currently under intense investigation. Insight into this role of NF-kappaB may be gained by understanding at a more basic level how this transcription factor contributes to skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Recent data from knockout mice support that the classical NF-kappaB pathway functions as an inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis and muscle regeneration acting through multiple mechanisms. In contrast, alternative NF-kappaB signaling does not appear to be required for myofiber conversion, but instead functions in myotube homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Additional knowledge of these signaling pathways in skeletal myogenesis should aid in the development of specific inhibitors that may be useful in treatments of muscle disorders.

Medical Subject Headings

Animals; Muscle Development (physiology); Muscle, Skeletal (growth & development); Muscular Diseases (metabolism); NF-kappa B (metabolism); Signal Transduction (physiology)

Publication Date

4-1-2010

Publication Title

Physiological reviews

E-ISSN

1522-1210

Volume

90

Issue

2

First Page

495

Last Page

511

PubMed ID

20393192

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1152/physrev.00040.2009

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