IKK/NF-kappaB regulates skeletal myogenesis via a signaling switch to inhibit differentiation and promote mitochondrial biogenesis
Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is involved in multiple skeletal muscle disorders, but how it functions in differentiation remains elusive given that both anti- and promyogenic activities have been described. In this study, we resolve this by showing that myogenesis is controlled by opposing NF-kappaB signaling pathways. We find that myogenesis is enhanced in MyoD-expressing fibroblasts deficient in classical pathway components RelA/p65, inhibitor of kappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), or IKKgamma. Similar increases occur in myoblasts lacking RelA/p65 or IKKbeta, and muscles from RelA/p65 or IKKbeta mutant mice also contain higher fiber numbers. Moreover, we show that during differentiation, classical NF-kappaB signaling decreases, whereas the induction of alternative members IKKalpha, RelB, and p52 occurs late in myogenesis. Myotube formation does not require alternative signaling, but it is important for myotube maintenance in response to metabolic stress. Furthermore, overexpression or knockdown of IKKalpha regulates mitochondrial content and function, suggesting that alternative signaling stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis. Together, these data reveal a unique IKK/NF-kappaB signaling switch that functions to both inhibit differentiation and promote myotube homeostasis.
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Animals, Newborn; Cell Differentiation (genetics); Cell Line; Cells, Cultured; Down-Regulation (genetics); Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental (genetics); I-kappa B Kinase (genetics, metabolism); Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Mitochondria (metabolism, ultrastructure); Muscle Development (genetics); Muscle Fibers, Skeletal (metabolism); Muscle, Skeletal (embryology, metabolism, ultrastructure); Myoblasts, Skeletal (metabolism, ultrastructure); NF-kappa B (metabolism); Signal Transduction (genetics); Transcription Factor RelA (genetics, metabolism)
The Journal of cell biology
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Bakkar, Nadine; Wang, Jingxin; Ladner, Katherine J.; Wang, Huating; Dahlman, Jason M.; Carathers, Micheal; Acharyya, Swarnali; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Hollenbach, Andrew D.; and Guttridge, Denis C., "IKK/NF-kappaB regulates skeletal myogenesis via a signaling switch to inhibit differentiation and promote mitochondrial biogenesis" (2008). Translational Neuroscience. 1389.