Inhibition of xc⁻ transporter-mediated cystine uptake by sulfasalazine analogs
A series of sulfasalazine analogs were synthesized and tested for their ability to block cystine-glutamate antiporter system xc⁻ using L-[(14)C]cystine as a substrate. Replacement of sulfasalazine's diazo group with an alkyne group led to an equally potent inhibitor, 2-hydroxy-5-((4-(N-pyridin-2-ylsulfamoyl)phenyl)ethynyl)benzoic acid 6. Our SAR studies also revealed that the carboxylate group of sulfasalazine is essential for its inhibitory activity while the phenolic hydroxyl group is dispensable. Truncated analogs lacking an N-pyridin-2-ylsulfamoyl moiety were less potent than sulfasalazine, but may serve as more tractable templates because of their low molecular weight by applying a variety of fragment growing approaches. Given that sulfasalazine is rapidly metabolized through cleavage of the diazo bond, these analogs may possess a more desirable pharmacological profile as system xc- blockers, in particular, for in vivo studies.
Medical Subject Headings
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG (antagonists & inhibitors, metabolism); Antiporters (antagonists & inhibitors, metabolism); Cell Line; Cystine (metabolism); Humans; Structure-Activity Relationship; Sulfasalazine (analogs & derivatives, pharmacology)
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Shukla, Krupa; Thomas, Ajit G.; Ferraris, Dana V.; Hin, Niyada; Sattler, Rita; Alt, Jesse; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S.; and Tsukamoto, Takashi, "Inhibition of xc⁻ transporter-mediated cystine uptake by sulfasalazine analogs" (2011). Translational Neuroscience. 1370.