Title

Race and income disparity in ischemic stroke care: nationwide inpatient sample database, 2002 to 2008

Document Type

Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Health care disparities exist between demographic groups with stroke. We examined whether patients of particular ethnicity or income levels experienced reduced access to or delays in receiving stroke care. METHODS: We studied all admissions for ischemic stroke in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database between 2002 and 2008. We used statistical models to determine whether median income or race were associated with intravenous (i.v.) thrombolysis treatment, in-hospital mortality, discharge disposition, hospital charges, and LOS in high- or low-volume hospitals. RESULTS: There were a total of 477,474 patients with ischemic stroke: 10,781 (2.3%) received i.v. thrombolysis, and 380,400 (79.7%) were treated in high-volume hospitals. Race (P < .0001) and median income (P < .001) were significant predictors of receiving i.v. thrombolysis, and minorities and low-income patients were less likely to receive i.v. thrombolysis. Median income was a predictor of access to high-volume hospitals (P < .0001), with wealthier patients more likely to be treated in high-volume hospitals, which had lower mortality rates (P = .0002). Patients in high-volume hospitals were 1.84 times more likely to receive i.v. thrombolysis (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: African Americans, Hispanics, and low median income patients are less likely to receive i.v. thrombolysis for ischemic stroke. Low median income patients are less likely to be treated at high-volume hospitals. High-volume hospitals have lower mortality rates and a higher likelihood of treating patients with i.v. thrombolysis. There is evidence for an influence of socioeconomic status and racial disparity in the treatment of ischemic stroke.

Keywords

Hospital charges, ischemic stroke, length of hospitalization, socioeconomic, thrombolytic

Medical Subject Headings

Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Brain Ischemia (epidemiology, therapy); Databases, Factual; Female; Healthcare Disparities (statistics & numerical data); Hospital Charges (statistics & numerical data); Hospital Mortality; Hospitals (statistics & numerical data); Humans; Income (statistics & numerical data); Inpatients; International Classification of Diseases; Length of Stay; Male; Middle Aged; Minority Groups (statistics & numerical data); Patients; Social Class; Socioeconomic Factors; Stroke (epidemiology, therapy); Thrombolytic Therapy (statistics & numerical data); Treatment Outcome; United States (epidemiology)

Publication Date

1-1-2014

Publication Title

Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association

E-ISSN

1532-8511

Volume

23

Issue

1

First Page

17

Last Page

24

PubMed ID

22818388

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2012.06.004

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