Aggressive intervention to treat a young woman with intracranial hemorrhage following unsuccessful intravenous thrombolysis for left middle cerebral artery occlusion. Case report

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Stroke patients whose condition does not improve after intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may be candidates for endovascular intervention. Patients with new intracerebral hemorrhage noted during such interventions pose a difficult challenge to neurointerventionists and are often sequestered as treatment failures and deemed inappropriate for intraarterial recanalization efforts. The authors present a case in which aggressive intervention was performed despite evidence of contrast extravasation on preintervention angiography. This 37-year-old woman presented with an occlusion of the M(1) segment of the left middle cerebral artery and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 24. She received intravenous tPA without improvement. Angiography revealed M(1) thrombus as well as active contrast extravasation without arterial displacement. Thromboaspiration was performed in light of her known hemorrhage with excellent recanalization. Immediate postprocedure imaging demonstrated a large insular hematoma and emergent craniectomy and hematoma evacuation were performed. At 4 months' follow-up, the patient was living at home, was ambulating, and had excellent comprehension with mild expressive aphasia. There is little peer-reviewed data in the literature to aid in the decision-making process when contrast extravasation is recognized at the time of preinterevention angiography. Continuation of mechanical endovascular stroke intervention, in light of active contrast extravasation, may be warranted in young patients with major deficits and absence of arterial displacement or delayed global filling. Further thrombolytics are not advised. In select stroke patients, continuation of a planned attempt at mechanical recanalization without the further use of thrombolytics may be warranted in light of known intracerebral hemorrhage.

Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Cerebral Angiography; Decompressive Craniectomy; Female; Fibrinolytic Agents (adverse effects, therapeutic use); Humans; Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery (diagnostic imaging, drug therapy); Intracranial Hemorrhages (diagnostic imaging, etiology, surgery); Stroke (diagnostic imaging, drug therapy); Thrombolytic Therapy (adverse effects); Tissue Plasminogen Activator (adverse effects, therapeutic use); Treatment Outcome

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Journal of neurosurgery







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