Analysis of pallidotomy lesion positions using three-dimensional reconstruction of pallidal lesions, the basal ganglia, and the optic tract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the position of radiofrequency pallidotomy lesions placed using microelectrode stimulation and cellular recordings in relation to a stereotactically defined starting point. Radiofrequency lesion locations were also evaluated in relation to the putamen, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and optic tract. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images obtained from 23 patients with Parkinson's disease who underwent pallidotomy at the University of Kansas Medical Center were analyzed. Using computerized techniques, lesion positions in relation to the midcommissural point and a hypothetical starting point were determined. Data segmentation and three- dimensional reconstruction of pallidal lesions, the internal capsule, and the optic tract allowed assessment of lesion position in relation to internal anatomy. Clinical outcome of pallidotomy was assessed using both the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Dementia Rating Scale. RESULTS: Pallidal lesions were usually placed anterior and dorsal to the stereotactically defined starting point. The position of pallidal lesions in the men were observed, in four trials, to be significantly more dorsal than the lesions in the women. The outer zone of the lesion was usually adjacent to the internal capsule and the putamen and relatively close to the optic tract. The inner zone of the lesion was usually several millimeters removed from anatomic boundaries of the putamen, internal capsule, and optic tract. Patients achieved favorable outcomes, with reduced dyskinesias and 'off' time and improvement of their Parkinsonian symptoms, as evidenced by clinical assessment, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and the Dementia Rating Scale. CONCLUSION: Microelectrode stimulation and cellular recordings usually led to a final pallidotomy lesion position that deviated from the stereotactically defined starting point. The pallidotomy lesions in the men were observed to be more dorsal than the lesions in the women. Clinical outcomes were not correlated with either lesion location relative to the starting point or distances between the pallidal lesion and the putamen, internal capsule, or optic tract. Kinesthetically responsive cells may be localized generally more anterior and dorsal to the starting point (within the globus pallidus) and may be grouped variably from patient to patient in relation to other basal ganglia structures. Although the primary lesion site is most likely within the sensorimotor region of the globus pallidus internus, the more dorsal locations of responsive cell groups may indicate that some lesion sites may be localized within the globus pallidus externus.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Burns, Jeffrey M.; Wilkinson, Steve; Kieltyka, Jennifer; Overman, John; Lundsgaarde, Thorsten; Tollefson, Travis; Koller, William C.; Pahwa, Rajesh; Troster, Alexander I.; Lyons, Kelly E.; Batnitzky, Solomon; Wetzel, Louis; and Gordon, Michael A., "Analysis of pallidotomy lesion positions using three-dimensional reconstruction of pallidal lesions, the basal ganglia, and the optic tract" (1997). Clinical Neuropsychology. 34.