Background: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models are important vehicles for studying the effect of infectious elements such as Pertussis toxin (PTx) on disease processes related to acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) or multiple sclerosis (MS). PTx has pleotropic effects on the immune system. This study was designed to investigate the effects of PTx administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) in preventing downstream immune cell infiltration and demyelination of the spinal cord. Methods and Findings: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice with MOG 35-55 . PTx icv at seven days post MOG immunization resulted in mitigation of clinical motor symptoms, minimal T cell infiltration, and the marked absence of axonal loss and demyelination of the spinal cord. Integrity of the blood brain barrier was compromised in the brain whereas spinal cord BBB integrity remained intact. PTx icv markedly increased microglia numbers in the brain preventing their migration to the spinal cord. An in vitro transwell study demonstrated that PTx inhibited migration of microglia. Conclusion: Centrally administered PTx abrogated migration of microglia in EAE mice, limiting the inflammatory cytokine milieu to the brain and prevented dissemination of demyelination. The effects of PTx icv warrants further investigation and provides an attractive template for further study regarding the pleotropic effects of infectious elements such as PTx in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. 2010 Yin et al.
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Yin, Junxiang; Tu, Jiang Long; Lin, Haojie; Liu, Rulan; Zhao, Chong Bo; Coons, Stephen W.; Kuniyoshi, Sandra; and Shi, Jiong, "Centrally Administered Pertussis Toxin Inhibits Microglia Migration to the Spinal Cord and Prevents Dissemination of Disease in an EAE Mouse Model" (2010). Neurology. 199.