Tnk1/Kos1: a novel tumor suppressor.
Tnk1/Kos1 is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase implicated in negative regulation of cell growth by a mechanism involving inhibition of Ras activation and requiring Tnk1/Kos1's intrinsic catalytic activity. Tnk1/Kos1 null mice were created by homologous recombination by deleting the catalytic domain. Upon aging, both Tnk1+/- and Tnk1-/- mice develop spontaneous tumors, including lymphomas and carcinomas at high rates (i.e. 27%, and 43%, respectively), indicating that Tnk1/Kos1 is a tumor suppressor. Tissues from Tnk1/Kos1-null mice exhibit proportionally higher levels of basal and growth factor-stimulated Ras activation. Mechanistically, Tnk1/Kos1 requires either or both Y277 and Y287 sites to be intact for enzymatic activity and phosphorylation of its substrate, growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2). Data indicate that following tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb2 by Tnk1/Kos1, the Grb2-Sos1 guanine exchange factor (GEF) complex that mediates growth factor stimulated Ras activation becomes disrupted, resulting in the reversal of Ras activation. Conversely, the loss of Tnk1/Kos1 activity results in constitutive activation of Ras due to prolonged stabilization/activation of the Grb2-Sos1 GEF activity. Tnk1/Kos1 is the first tyrosine kinase discovered to have tumor suppressor activity, and the mechanism of spontaneous tumor formation involves constitutive, indirect activation of Ras. Thus, Ras may display "oncogenic activity" without undergoing "oncogenic" mutation. We now find that a cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) display downregulation of Tnk1/Kos1 that may account for tumorigenesis in humans.
Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
May, William Stratford; Hoare, Kishalay; Hoare, Sarasija; Reinhard, Mary K.; Lee, Young J.; and Oh, S. Paul, "Tnk1/Kos1: a novel tumor suppressor." (2010). Neurobiology. 687.